Bruno Belhoste studied history and the history of science at the University Paris 1, obtaining his PhD in 1982 with a dissertation on the life and work of the mathematician Augustin-Louis Cauchy. He obtained his Habilitation in 2001 with a dissertation on the history of the Ecole polytechnique from 1794 to 1870. He was a researcher at the National Institute for Pedagogical in Paris (1986–2003) and a professor in the history of science at the University Paris 10 Nanterre (2003–2007) as well as at the University Paris 1 (2007–2018). He was also the head of the Institut d’histoire moderne et contemporaine (CNRS-ENS-Paris 1) (2014–2017). He retired in September 2018.
His current research project deals with the history of animal magnetism at the end of the eighteenth century. He is working on his next book project which is a biography of its founder, Franz Anton Mesmer