This Open Access book discusses the progress of science and the transfer of scientific knowledge to technological application. It also identifies the factors necessary to achieve this progress. Based on a case study of the physical chemist Fritz Haber's discovery of ammonia synthesis between 1903 and 1909, the book places Haber's work in historical and scientific (physicochemical) context. The scientific developments of the preceding century are framed in a way that emphasizes the confluence of knowledge needed for Haber's success. Against this background, Haber's work is presented in detail along with the indispensable contributions of his colleague, the physical chemist, Walter Nernst, and their assistants. The detailed accounts of scientific advancement remind us of the physical basis on which our scientific theories and ideas are built. Without this reminder we often forget how complex, and how beautiful achievements in science can be.