This book presents new research on women scientists who enjoyed careers at industrial corporations during the first seven decades of the twentieth century. What positions were they able to achieve? What was the relationship between academic and industrial research? How open were certain industrial sectors – the electrical, chemical, cosmetic, nuclear, and optical sectors in particular – to hiring female researchers? Were women working in certain industries better able to acquire patents than those in others? What role did patronage play at the time? How did political turmoil affect women's careers? How did career opportunities differ from one country to another? This book focuses on women who were active in Germany, Russia, and the United States, but the situation in Greece, France, and Great Britain is also addressed. Each of the chapters is based on new sources, including materials from corporate archives. On the basis of these findings and their own work, the editors have formulated a series of general theses concerning the conditions of women working in industrial research.