Short Biographies
of the Persons relevant to the Manuscript and its History

Niccolò Aggiunti (1600 - 1635)

studied at Pisa under Benedetto Castelli. After receiving his degree, in 1621, he became tutor of Ferdinand II de' Medici. During this period it is likely he came to know Galileo, becoming one of his closest pupils and friends. In 1626 he was awarded the chair of mathematics at Pisa, as successor to Castelli. On Aggiunti see FAVARO 1913-14.

Vincenzio Antinori (1792 - 1865)

was entrusted by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Leopoldo II, to arrange the great collection of manuscripts of Galileo and his disciples saved in Grand Ducal library. Antinori wrote an essay on Galileo's philosophy (Della filosofia di Galileo, in ANTINORI, 1868, 1-96), and left in manuscript an unfinished biography of the scientist. See V. ANTINORI, Della vita e delle opere di Galileo Galilei. Libri Quattro, BNF, Ms. II, V, 111. On Antinori, see DE CARO 1961.

Andrea Arrighetti (1592 - 1672)

studied mathematics at Pisa under Benedetto Castelli. In 1613 he became member of the Crusca Academy, and was later appointed as superintendent of fortifications in Tuscany. Arrighetti was made senator in 1644, and, in 1668, the Duke Ranuccio Farnese conferred him the title of Count.

Niccolò Arrighetti (1586 - 1639)

studied with Galileo at Florence. In 1623 he became Consul of the Accademia Fiorentina. Arrighetti published a praise of Filippo Salviati, the friend Galileo chose as protagonist of his Dialogue and of the Discorsi. See Delle lodi del Sig. Filippo Salviati. Orazione di Niccolò Arrighetti 1614 Accademico della Crusca, Giunti, Firenze, 1614. Arrighetti copied several folio pages of Codex 72, see the discussion of the contents of the manuscript.

Raffaello Caverni (1837 - 1900)

from San Quirico di Montelupo (Tuscany), studied astronomy, physics and mathematics at the Istituto Ximeniano in Florence. In 1860, he was ordained and, after ten years spent in teaching at the seminary of Fiorenzuola, was assigned to the parish church of Quarata Antellese in Bagno di Ripoli, near Florence. Caverni wrote several popular scientific books on physics, botany and mineralogy, and on Dante's Divina Commedia. In the field of the history of science, he published works on Galileo's physics (Problemi naturali di Galileo Galilei e di altri autori della sua scuola, Sansoni, Firenze, 1877), and on the invention of thermometer (Notizie storiche intorno all'invenzione del termometro, «Bullettino di bibliografia e di storia delle scienze matematiche e fisiche», XI, 1878). His massive Storia del metodo sperimentale in Italia was published in six volume between 1891 and 1900. On Caverni see TABARRONI 1970; CAPPELLETTI-DI TROCCHIO 1979.

Niccolò Cini (? - 1638)

son of a Pisan nobleman, in 1613 was appointed canon of the metropolitan church of Florence. He was very active in comforting and supporting Galileo after the 1633 trial. Viviani counted him among Galileo's disciples. Cini died in 1638. A letter by Cini is found in Codex 72, see the discussion of other writings contained in the manuscript.

Antonio Favaro (1847 - 1922)

professor of history of mathematics at Padua university, studied in great detail Galileo's accomplishments, publishing over two hundred articles and papers on every aspects of his life and work. Favaro was the director of the so called ÒEdizione NazionaleÒ of Galileo's works, which, in twenty volumes, collects all the writings and the correspondence of the Pisan scientist. On Favaro see GABRIELI 1925; BUCCIANTINI 1992.

Mario Guiducci (1585 - 1646)

studied law at Pisa university, and was member of the Accademia della Crusca and Accademia Fiorentina. In 1625 adhered to Accademia dei Lincei. His cooperation with Galileo was particularly close at the time of the dispute on the comets, between 1618 and 1623. In 1619, Guiducci published under his name the Discorso delle comete, which in fact was largely a work of Galileo. Guiducci copied several folio pages of Codex 72, see the discussion of the contents of the manuscript. On Guiducci see FAVARO 1916.

Braccio Manetti (1607 - 1652)

served as official in the Florentine administration, holding different positions. With Famiano Michelini he was appointed surveyor of the embankment of Arno river in the plain of Varlungo. Manetti was member of the Crusca Academy and of the "Accademia Fiorentina," of whom he was consul in 1642.

Giovanni Battista Clemente de' Nelli (1725 - 1793)

Florentine scholar, nobleman and senator, wrote a massive biography of Galileo (NELLI:1793), and a history of Florentine literature in the Seventeenth Century (Saggio di storia letteraria fiorentina del secolo XVII, Firenze, 1759). Nelli recovered and acquired a noticeable amount of Galilean manuscripts, rescuing the collection from dispersion. On Nelli, see DE TIPALDO 1834-38, III, 145-6.

Alessandro Ninci (? - 1649)

born in San Casciano Val di Pesa, was from 1627 priest in the church of Campoli. In the years 1639-1641 he wrote several letters to Galileo, sending presents and offering his service as copier. Ninci died in 1649. A letter by Cini is found in Codex 72, see the discussion of other writings contained in the manuscript.

Francois de Noailles (1584 - 1645)

French nobleman, studied at Padua with Galileo. After having served in the French army, he was appointed counsellor of state in 1633. In 1634 he was sent as French ambassador to Rome. It is possible that Noailles carried to France the manuscript of the Discorsi. On Noailles see FAVARO 1915.

Tolomeo Nozzolini (1569 - 1643)

taught logic and physics at the university of Pisa. In 1606 he was assigned by the Florentine archbishop to supervise country churches, holding that post until 1640. Nozzolini wrote several poems, and in one of them he praised Galileo's Dialogue.

Giuseppe Toaldo (1719 - 1797)

was member of many scientifc European Academies (Bologna, Turin, Berlin, Mannheim, St. Petersburg, the Royal Society). His scientific activity was focused mainly in the fields of astronomy and meteorology, but he wrote also on mathematics, agronomy and physics. The Abbot Toaldo published in 1744 the Paduan edition of Galileo's works. This edition is famous because of the publishing of the first authorized reprint of the Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems after the condemnation of the work in 1633; for more information on this edition, see the history of Galileo's manuscripts in the 18th century. On Toaldo see BOZZOLATO 1984; CASATI 1990.

Giovanni Battista Venturi (1746 - 1822)

professor of physics at the universities of Modena and Pavia, wrote a book on the history of optics (Commentari sopra la storia e le teorie dell'ottica, Bologna, 1814), and published valuable works on Leonardo da Vinci and Galileo (Essai sur les ouvrages phisico-mathematiques de Leonardo da Vinci, Paris, 1797; Memorie e lettere inedite finora o diperse di Galileo Galilei, Modena, 1818-21, 2 voll.). On Venturi see DE TONI 1923.

Vincenzo Viviani (1622 - 1703)

studied mathematics with Clemente Settimi of the Scuole Pie. In 1638, Settimi introduced him to the Grand Duke, who provided 50 scudi per year to the young man to provide him with mathematical books, and he later arranged for Viviani to be Galileo's companion and pupil. This arrangement began late in 1639 and lasted until Galileo's death, in 1642. In 1647, Viviani was appointed mathematician to the Grand Duke, and in 1657 he became member of the Academy of the Cimento. In 1655-56 he edited the first collected edition of Galileo's works. Viviani published many mathematical books, and wrote an important (even if not always reliable) biography of his master Galileo. In his testament, Viviani left funds for the construction of Galileo's sepulchral monument in Santa Croce. On Viviani see FAVARO 1912-13; BONELLI 1972.

Emil Wohlwill (1835 - 1912)

was one of the leading Galileo scholars of the 19th century. He studied chemistry and later worked as an industrial chemist. His most significant contribution to the history of science is a Galileo biography in two volumes, based on forty years of work and on the study of primary sources, many of which had become available to historians for the first time. In addition, he published several pioneering papers on the history of early modern physics. Along with Raffaello Caverni and Antonio Favaro, he was among the first to systematically use the manuscripts collected in Ms. Gal. 72 for a reconstruction of Galileo's mechanics and its development. In spite of his pathbreaking contributions, the work of Wohlwill has been widely neglected by Galileo scholars of the second half of the 20th century.

Short Biographies
of the Persons relevant to the Manuscript and its History