Jeffrey Johnson, Professor Emeritus of History at the Department of History of Villanova University in Pennsylvania (USA), is an expert on 19th and 20th-century German history, from Imperial Germany to Nazi Germany, and on the history of science and technology. He also has an interest in the history of and cultural perspectives on artificial life and artificial reproduction, including in vitro fertilization, cloning, transplants, genetic engineering, robots, and artificial intelligence. He is a known expert concerning the origins of chemical warfare and the history of the chemical industry during the First World War, including munitions production and applied chemical science. He received both his PhD and MA in history from Princeton University. For the GMPG Research Program, he investigates the relevant Max Planck Institutes’ biochemical research networks in early postwar Germany.