Events and Publications

Workshops and Conferences

Workshop "Revolutions in Science," August 13, 1996

Organized by Hanne Andersen and Klaus A. Vogel

Since the publication of Thomas S. Kuhn's pioneering study on "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" (1962) there has been an ongoing debate on the usefulness and analytic distinctness of the concept of "revolution(s)" in the context of a processual analysis within the history of science. In a recent historiographic overview on "Revolution in Science" (1985), Bernard Cohen reconstructed the use of the term over the last two centuries both in general history and in the history of science, thereby pointing to a close interrelation of its political and scientific career. The last few years, however, have shown a remarkable reluctance in the use of the concept of "revolution(s)" in science, giving way to other processual terms like "transformation," "integration/disintegration," etc. Does this mean that "revolution" as descriptive and/or analytic term, combining notions of speed, intensity, discontinuity, transgression, incommensurability and "gestalt-switch," is altogether superseded? Or, on the contrary, has "revolution" as a concept in the historiography of science reached an already unquestionable status, only to be pinpointed anew in its range and specific qualities?

A number of preparatory working group sessions were devoted to successors and precursors of Kuhn's concept of scientific revolutions, for example Ludwik Flecks "Entstehung und Entwicklung einer wissenschaftlichen Tatsache" (1935). Speakers for these sessions were Hanne Andersen, Peter Barker (University of Oklahoma), Gerd Graßhoff, Wolfgang Küttler, Andrew Mendelsohn, Staffan Müller-Wille, Oha d Parnes, Skúli Sigurdsson, Zeno Swijtink, and Klaus Vogel from the Institute.

The workshop itself concentrated on historical case studies, each trying to evaluate from a specific empirical background the usefulness of the concept of a "scientific revolution" as a descriptive and/or analytic category. After an historical introduction to the notion of scientific revolutions by Klaus Vogel and an analytical introduction by Skúli Sigurdsson, the following case studies were presented: "The Cosmographic Revolution" (Klaus Vogel), "Kepler's Revolution" (Gerd Graßhoff), "Linné" (Staffan Müller-Wille), "Cell Theory" (Ohad Parnes), "The Bacteriological Revolution" (Andrew Mendelsohn), "Faraday's Field Concept" (Yoonsuhn Chung), "The General Theory of Relativity" (Tilman Sauer), and "Max Weber" (Wolfgang Küttler).

The concluding debate (chair: Hanne Andersen) comprised a confrontation of the different approaches. There was consensus among the speakers that the use of the term "revolution" presupposes a spectacular reorganization of a subdiscipline or a field of knowledge, leading to a transgression of its boundaries. As the perspectives on this process vary among the actors and change through time, the term "scientific revolution," although useful for a general qualification, requires a number of specifications provided by historical description. Some of these specifications, like "discontinuity," "incommensurability," and "gestalt-switch," qualify particular aspects of the process, but do not delimit the possibilities of its reconstruction.

Workshop "Fundamental Categories of Prescientific and Scientific Cognition (Number, Space, Time, Matter, etc.) in Human Action," September 9-11, 1996

Organized by Peter Damerow and Jürgen Renn

In genetic epistemology it has been claimed that there are close connections between the development of fundamental structures of cognition in ontogenesis and the development of basic concepts in the history of science. Until now, this challenging claim had, however, scarcely an impact on theory formation in psychology and was almost completely neglected in the history of science.

The workshop brought together psychologists and historians of science in order to initiate a closer cooperation on epistemological questions. Basic results of psychological research concerning conceptual universals in the development of prescientific thought and conceptual changes in the individual development of cognition resembling conceptual changes in the history of science have been confronted with investigations concerning the sweeping changes of the concepts of number, time and space in the development from primitive societies and early civilizations to modern mathematics and physics.

Discussions at the workshop centered on two questions: How do psychological and historical research account for the development of basic structures of cognition? And how can psychological and historical research be based on common epistemological assumptions in order to provide explanations for this development that do not contradict each other?

The following presentations were given at the workshop: Jonas Langer (University of California, Berkeley, Department of Psychology): "Conceptual Universals in Prescientific Thought Development," Helmut Reich (Pädagogisches Institut of the University of Freiburg): "Empirical Evidence for Parallelisms between the Scientific Developments from their Origins to Galileo and the Development of the World View of Children," Peter Damerow (MPIWG): "Historical Epistemology of the Number Concept," Jürgen Renn (MPIWG): "Historical Epistemology of the Concepts of Time, Space and Matter," Gerd Graßhoff (MPIWG): "The Concept of Time Developing with Instrumental Capabilities and Theoretical Requirements."

The workshop was organized in honor of Wolfgang Edelstein on the occasion of his retirement. The intention is to continue the work initiated at the workshop through a series of further workshops on different aspects of the relation between action and cognition.

Workshop "Gene Concepts in Development and Evolution II," October 17-19, 1996

Organized by Peter J. Beurton and Wolfgang Lefèvre

The gene concept and its present crisis provided the subject matter for the workshop "Gene Concepts and Evolution" held in 1995 with participants from America, Israel, France, Germany and Switzerland (see that year's Annual Report and the preprint no. 18 that arose from the workshop). The results of this workshop attest to the fact that research on "the gene" at present provides a unique intersection of historical, methodological, and empirical problems in the life sciences. It also became clear that different approaches to the conceptual problems of the gene affect a number of related subjects in unforeseen ways, e.g., the nature - nurture debate, questions of the origin of life, or even questions of health care. In view of these promising beginnings, work on the subject was intensified, and after a period of intensive communication, a second workshop on the subject was held in the fall of 1996. The theme of the workshop was slightly broadened into "Gene Concepts in Development and Evolution," to do justice to the most recent trends in concept formation.

The month before the workshop Raphael Falk (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem) joined the preparation group as a visiting scholar. Together with Peter J. Beurton and Wolfgang Lefèvre he finalized the program for the workshop and arranged the discussions during the plenary sessions and the outlines for round-table sessions. Special attention was paid to the policy and the procedures of editing the papers submitted for the conference into a publishable volume.

An "overview" draft was prepared in which major aspects of the different papers were summarized and commented. This was distributed to all participants before the conference convened. On the basis of the submitted manuscripts and the overview-intensive preliminary discussions, the possibility of integrating the workshop into a cohesive enterprise was considered, an enterprise that would provide not only historical-conceptual insights but may also be of some prospective value.

The workshop was attended by: Peter J. Beurton (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science), "The end of reductionism or a unified view of the gene from the perspective of population genetics;" Raphael Falk (The Hebrew University), "An overview" (based on all other participants' contributions); Thomas Fogle (Saint Mary's College), "The dissolution of protein coding genes in molecular biology;" Michael Dietrich (University of California, Davis), "From gene to genetic hierarchy: Richard Goldschmidt and the problem of the gene;" Fred Gifford (Michigan State University), "Gene concepts and genetic concepts;" Scott F. Gilbert (Swarthmore College), "Bearing crosses: the historiography of genetics and embryology;" James R. Griesemer (University of California, Davis), "Reproduction and the reduction of genetics to development;" Evelyn Fox Keller (MIT), "Decoding the genetic program;" Wolfgang Lefèvre (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science); Michel Morange (Ecole Normale Superieure), "The developmental gene concept: history and limits;" Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (Universität Salzburg/Max Planck Institute for the History of Science), "Gene concepts: a fragmented view from the perspective of molecular biology;" Sara Schwartz (The Hebrew University), "The differential concept of the gene: past and present;" Marga Vicedo (Arizona State University West), "Unit-characters, factors, and genes: E.M. East's views on the nature of hereditary units;" Marcel Weber (University of Minnesota), "Representing genes: co-linearity and the logic of genetic mapping;" Sahotra Sarkar (McGill University). Jean Gayon (Universtité de Bourgogne) and Frederic Holmes (Yale University), though unable to attend, remain "full members" of the project.

This second workshop was convened in the understanding that it forms an immediate stepping stone towards a book manuscript and that the papers presented at the workshop are drafts of the contributions to the volume. The papers covered historical, empirical, conceptual, and also linguistic and social aspects related to the question, "What is a gene?"

The volume, however, will not simply contain workshop proceedings, but is supposed to become a well-edited volume of interrelating contributions on the topic. To this end, most of the workshop activities centered on discussions of organized comments on each participant's paper by one other participant. These comments, in edited form, will become an integral part of the volume.

As already noted in the 1995 report, no final definition of the gene will emerge from the volume, but rather a diversity of concepts reflecting the background of the individual contributors (e.g., developmental versus corpuscular gene, referential gene versus ontological gene, etc.).

The editorial work was and will be assisted especially by Raphael Falk during a second stay at the Institute in 1997 (see See Raphael Falk (The Hebrew University of Jerusalem) ).

Workshop "The Display of Nature in Eighteenth-Century Europe" December 12-14, 1996

Organizer: Lorraine Daston

Workshop held under the auspices of the European Science Foundation project, "Concepts and Symbols in Eighteenth-Century Europe"

A workshop on "The Display of Nature in Eighteenth-Century Europe" (organized by Lorraine Daston) was held at the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science in Berlin, 12-14 December 1996, as the second of the five planned workshops under the rubric "Nature," organized as part of the European Science Foundation project, "Concepts and Symbols in Eighteenth Century Europe." All five of the workshops were conceived as attempts to anchor traditional themes of eighteenth-century studies in the context of practices, representations, and values, as well as of concepts. In attempting to understand how the eighteenth-century aesthetics and metaphysics of nature was translated into the classifications of naturalists, the experimental demonstrations of physicists, the landscape paintings of artists, and the administrative units of statesmen, participants in the workshop paid close attention both to philosophical and scientific sources, such as treatises on the sublime and theories of electricity, and also to concrete objects, such as estate maps, collecting boxes, barometers, opera sets, and menagerie animals. The methodological aim of the workshop was to unite forms of evidence - texts, paintings, maps, scores, blueprints - as well as disciplines - the histories of philosophy, science, music, art, and geography - in order to reveal eighteenth-century nature as it was conceptualized, depicted, and experienced.

"Display" was the key organizing concept for all of the papers, echoing the peculiarly eighteenth-century tendency to imagine nature as a spectacle, as staged, framed, boxed, or otherwise demonstrated in the root sense of the word. It was not enough to observe and admire nature; nature must be presented from a carefully selected point of view, artfully designed to evince certain effects (in the case of the scientific experiment) or to cultivate a certain sensibility (in the case of landscape gardening or panoramic paintings) or to enforce certain norms of decorum (in the case of literary or theatrical allegories). The aesthetic appreciation of nature is at least as old as Pliny's rhapsodies on the beauty of flowers and seashells, and the sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Wunderkammern embodied a striking natural aesthetic of plenitude and variety. What was novel about the eighteenth-century European portrayal of nature in a wide range of milieux was its deliberate selectivity and theatricality.

Four major themes ran through the nine papers presented at the workshop: the blurred boundary between the natural and the artificial, the normative uses of nature, the material apparatus for the study of nature, and the shaping of sensibilities towards nature. In the brief account of each of these themes that follows, papers will be referred to by author in abbreviated form; please see the list of authors and titles at the end of the report for full references.

All of the papers emphasized that "nature" in eighteenth-century usage almost always referred to an ersatz nature, a representation of nature through a mathematical model, a map, a natural history collection, a painting, an allegorical figure, or a landscaped garden. In this sense, all of nature might be said to be artificial. Some of the papers, however, invoked the boundary between the natural and the artificial in a more specific context. For example, a 1778 painting of the Rhône glacier ordered what had earlier been perceived as a hideous chaos along strict geometrical principles ( Klonk); the Viennese menagerie at Schönbrunn (est. 1752) was planned in concentric circles around a breakfast pavilion at the center, symbolizing imperial power and perhaps alchemical and emblematic associations with exotic animal species ( Rieke-Müller); reforming British landowners called for a nature "improved" by human cultivation and engineering ( Porter); the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle rejected offers by artists to paint decorative friezes on the grounds that works of nature were superior to those of art ( Spary). The fact that almost all eighteenth-century examples of the "natural," from the menagerie to the exhibitions at natural history museums, partook of the artificial makes the struggle over labels all the more revealing of the meanings and values of nature for eighteenth-century Europeans. It is against this background that canonical texts like Denis Diderot's Supplément au voyage de Bougainville and Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Rêveries must be reread.

In the Latin West there exists a long tradition of moralizing nature since at least the thirteenth century, but invocations of nature's authority were generally restricted to the domain of familial relationships and sexuality. In eighteenth-century Europe, the moral authority of nature expanded dramatically; nature became the final court of appeal to which the legitimacy of governments, of religions, of specific laws, and even of weights and measures was submitted. Viewed against this background, the displays of nature could serve as implicit or explicit justifications for the distribution of power and prestige. The princely menageries of eighteenth-century Germany symbolized the far-flung dominion and commercial networks of their owners ( Rieke-Müller); the portrayal of nature as reasonable and decorous at the ducal opera house in Parma exacted corresponding conduct from the Duke's formerly boisterous subjects ( Feldman); the paternalistic land policies propounded by English gentry dovetailed neatly with paternalistic social policies ( Porter). The marvelous, a staple of early modern poetry, drama, and art, was banished in the name of seemliness and verisimilitude. Nature, formerly so copious and varied, was held up as the standard of orderly uniformity, the underwriter of natural law's jurisprudence, and later, of the Droits de l'Homme. Each of the antonyms to the natural - artificial, preternatural, unnatural - was tainted either morally, aesthetically, or (more) both simultaneously.

During the eighteenth century, particularly but not exclusively in the natural sciences, an elaborate apparatus emerged with which to study and demonstrate nature. Leyden jars, static electricity machines, thermometers, barometers, specially designed boxes for collecting natural history specimens, vitrines and cabinets for displaying natural objects - all of these tools filtered observations of nature. Indeed, it is not too much to claim that they created a new nature. Electricians like the Abbé Nollet and Benjamin Franklin produced novel and wondrous phenomena before both expert and lay audiences ( Licoppe); traveling naturalists brought home to their studies and museums specimens which were not only new to Europeans but also classified and arranged in an order that obliterated connections to their environments of origin (te Heesen). The savants-voyageurs who scaled first the peaks of the Alps and the Pyrenees in Europe and then the mountains of South America learned to cast an imaginary worldwide net of instrument measurements over objects widely separated in space; geologists came to understand glimpses into the depths of a ravine also as glimpses into depths of time from which the earth's history might be read ( Bourguet).

"Sensibility" is a notoriously dense word in eighteenth-century parlance, referring simultaneously to perception, emotion, and judgment. The displays of nature at once formed and were formed by these collective ways of seeing, feeling, and discerning. Celebrated landscapes of alpine scenery or Vesuvian explosions colored perceptions of tourists who summed up sublime vistas in their journals by the name of the appropriate artist of that genre ( Klonk, Porter). Estate maps commissioned for the prosaic purposes of tax collection became framed ornaments for English gentry, singling out those features of the terrain made meaningful by tradition and taste ( Bendall). To possess a particular sensibility for nature became the badge of the learned or the lay observer: amateurs preferred their shells polished, while naturalists insisted upon having them "bruts" ( Spary); Parisians who flocked to popular lectures in experimental physics gasped over artifical lightning, while electricians strained to catch barely visible effects ( Licoppe). Alexander von Humboldt and other explorer-naturalists wrote paeans to the Olympian perspectives and contemplative solitude they enjoyed on mountain peaks ( Bourguet). Strict attention to different sensibilities of nature divides spectators to nature's display into several different audiences, even for the same objects. Sensibility also calls attention to the plurality of the senses, beyond vision, and the cultivation of synesthesia. The displays of nature in eighteenth-century Europe were schools of sensibility, disciplining the senses at the same time they instructed the mind.

List of Participants and Papers:

Sarah Bendall (Merton College, Oxford, UK), "Mapping and Displaying an English Marsh Landscape in the Mid-Eighteenth Century"

Marie-Noëlle Bourguet (Université de Paris VII), "Voyage et montagne au XVIIIe siècle: Le spectacle de la nature"

Martha Feldman (University of Chicago, USA), "Personifying Nature and Remaking Stage and Spectator in Eighteenth-Century Parma"

Anke te Heesen (Forschungszentrum Europäische Aufklärung, Potsdam), "Boxes in Siberia: Daniel Gottlob Messerschmidt's Ordering System on his Travels 1720-1727"

Charlotte Klonk (University of Warwick, UK), "The Art of Nature: The Depiction of Nature in Geological Publications"

Christian Licoppe (Paris, France), "Nollet's Electrical Show vs. the Devious Ways of Franklin's Electrical Atmospheres: A French Mid-Eighteenth-Century Crisis in the Legitimation of Experimental Philosophy through Experimental Display"

Roy Porter (Wellcome Institute, London, UK), "The Environment and the English Enlightenment"

Annelore Rieke-Müller (Oldenburg, Germany), "Von der lebenden Kunstkammer zur privaten Liebhaberei: Fürstliche Menagerien im deutschsprachigen Raum während des 18. Jahrhunderts"

Emma Spary (University of Warwick, UK), "Forging Nature: The Boundaries of Artificiality at the Republican Museum"

Workshop "Instruments, Travel and Science," December 15-16, 1996

Organized by H. Otto Sibum, Marie-Noëlle Bourguet, and Christian Licoppe

During the last year a number of scholars at the MPIWG have been working on different aspects of the history of travel and the history of experimentation and precision measurement. They have identified the study of instruments, travel and science - and their relations - as an important theme for understanding historically the complex process of producing and communicating scientific knowledge. In order to explore the potentials of such a research project they invited a small group of scholars working in related fields for a first one-day meeting on December 15 and 16, 1996.

Participants of the workshop were Jim Bennett (University of Oxford), Christophe Bonneuil (MPIWG, Berlin), Marie-Noëlle Bourguet (Universite VII-Denis Diderot, Paris), Lorraine Daston (MPIWG, Berlin), Christian Licoppe (CNET/CNRS, Paris), Guiliano Pancaldi (University of Bologna), Kapil Raj (CNRS/URA 1743, Paris), Simon Schaffer (University of Cambridge, U.K.), H. Otto Sibum (MPIWG, Berlin), Richard Staley (MPIWG, Berlin) and David Turnbull (Deakin University, Australia).

The workshop identified two main issues to examine more closely: 1) the uses of instruments, or the notion of local knowledge traditions, and 2) encounters, or the meaning of travel for the acquisition and transmission of scientific knowledge.

The first question picks up on historical studies about spaces of knowledge. Most of the recent work on the material culture of science, and especially that on experimentation, emphasizes the need for more fine-grained description of the places, people and practices surrounding the instruments scientists use in their investigations. The project of reworking experiments and the notion of gestural knowledge provide further methodological grounds to examine more closely those knowledge spaces, and emphasize the importance of working out how locales are coordinated with each other. The problem of coordination applies both to the linkages made by scientists and to the ways historians working on specific case studies can collaborate to achieve a more general portrayal of the sciences' development. Thus the tools and techniques explicitly designed for travel seem an excellent focus for our study.

A second major discussion concerned the notion of encounter. Historical accounts about encounters, explorations, and Wanderjahre support the assumption that a variety of spaces of knowledge or local knowledge traditions exist which are by no means the prerogative of traveling scientists, but rather are developed by a great number of different cultures. This discussion raises important questions, such as: What are the mechanisms of transmitting knowledge? What can travel? What cannot? How do these encounters effect a transformation of knowledge claims? What role do instruments play in this transfer of knowledge? Is the distinction of center and periphery helpful in this analysis,? Do we have to distinguish between images of uniformity and practices which make uniformity? How do we differentiate between precision, practice of measurement, and standardization?

The organizers and the participants agreed to continue work on this subject and will meet again in September 1998 in order to discuss first results of the participants' research.

Workshop "Experience and Knowledge Structures in Arabic and Latin Sciences," December 16-17, 1996

Organized by Paul Weinig and Muhammad Abattouy (Fez University)

The international workshop was the Institute's first effort in the field of History of Arabic Science. Its primary aim was to attain a general view of selected disciplines of Arabic sciences (philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, cartography, cosmography, medicine). The workshop also offered opportunities to receive first-hand information from specialists and allowed insight into the actual state of the art in each field portrayed. Problems of transmission or transmission processes and the relationship between experience and knowledge structures in the selected disciplines comprised the core of the discussions.

Another function of the workshop was to present to the scientific community of Arabists a research initiative on medieval Arabic mechanics. Connected with the framework of a current project on the emergence of preclassical mechanics directed by Jürgen Renn, it was designed and is being conducted in cooperation with Muhammad Abattouy (Fez University) and Paul Weinig (MPIWG Berlin). They are collaborating to edit and translate into English numerous Arabic treatises on balances and weights from the ninth through the sixteenth centuries. Many of these texts have escaped previous notice or have yet to be sufficiently studied, and thus constitute a field that deserves urgent exploration. Work was prompted by the recent rediscovery of two manuscripts of the most important texts by Thåbit ibn Qurra: a copy of the Arabic version of his famous Kitåb f· `l-qaras¥n, and a copy of his edition of a text ascribed to Euclid, On Heaviness and lightness. Originally preserved in the Staatsbibliothek in Berlin, the two manuscripts were reported lost after World War II. Fortunately project scholars were able to locate them in Krakov and present them to the specialists during the workshop.

The workshop was held in four sessions and included lectures given by twelve scholars from seven countries. In the first session, aspects of the "Transmission of Knowledge from Antiquity to the Middle Ages" were the main topics discussed. Papers were presented by Richard Lorch (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich): "Transmission of Greek Mathematical Works through Arabic into Latin: Theodosius' Sphaerica as Example," Matthias Schramm (Universität Tübingen): "Theoretical and Practical in Antiquity and Middle Ages," and Charles Burnett (Warburg Institute, London): "The Coherence of the Arabic-Latin Translation Programme in Toledo in the Twelfth Century."

Speakers in the second session on "Social Structures of Knowledge Production and Transmission" were Françoise Micheau (Université de Paris I): "Production des traités médicaux au Proche-Orient arabe (VIIIe-XIIIe siècles), étude quantitative sur les conditions et les rhythmes de l'activité scientifique," Sonja Brentjes (MPIWG Berlin): "Orthodoxy, Science, Power and the Madrasa (`college') in the Middle East (13th-14th centuries)," and Jens Høyrup (Roskilde University): "Integration/Non-integration of Theory and Practice in Ancient, Islamic and Medieval Latin Contexts."

"Practical Experience and Scientific Knowledge, the Cases of Mathematics, Geography, Astronomy and Cosmography" was the topic of the third session. Papers were presented by Menso Folkerts (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich): "Early Texts on Hindu-Arabic Calculation," David A. King (Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt/M.): "The Culmination of Medieval Islamic Mathematical Cartography, World-Maps for Finding the Direction and Distance of Mecca," Julio Samsó (Barcelona University): "Andalusian and Maghrebian Traditions of zijes," and Jamil Ragep (American Research Institute, Istanbul): "Scientific Cosmography in Islamic Civilization: Social and Intellectual Context of hay'a, Readership, Ownership Lines of Transmission."

In the final session "Comparison studies and their Problems in Arabic and Latin Sciences (the case of Mechanics)" the speakers were Muhammad Abattouy (Fez University): "Arabic Tradition of Mechanics and Engineering," and Paul Weinig (MPIWG Berlin): "Latin Medieval Tradition of Mechanics, Aspects of the Textual Tradition." Additionally this session included a brief presentation of a paper submitted by the late Wilbur R. Knorr (Stanford University): "On Heiberg's Euklid."

The papers of this workshop were edited as preprints of the Institute and will be published in a special issue of "Science in Context" edited by Muhammad Abattouy and Paul Weinig.

Colloquium "Einstein in Berlin: The First Ten Years," March 3-4, 1997

A joint colloquium by the Center for Philosophy and History of Science at Boston University, the Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, and the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science

The colloquium was dedicated to Einstein's scientific achievements in Berlin and their intellectual, institutional, and cultural contexts. The Institute contributed to the colloquium three presentations, "Albert Einstein in Politics - a Comparative Approach" (Britta Scheideler and Hubert Goenner), "The Rediscovery of General Relativity in Berlin" (Jürgen Renn and Tilman Sauer), and "Directing a Kaiser Wilhelm Institute: Einstein, Organizer of Science?" (Giuseppe Castagnetti and Hubert Goenner). All three presentations interpreted Einstein's activities as a choice among a range of possible reactions to external challenges, be they the political crisis of the First World War, the intellectual crisis of classical physics, or the demands of a new institutional organization of science. A further common perspective of the three contributions was that the intellectual resources upon which Einstein drew in these reactions were deeply rooted in various nineteenth-century traditions. These traditions shaped, in particular, his image of science as the lonely search for a conceptually unified understanding of nature by members of an elitist république des savants . In spite of Einstein's classical understanding of science, its protagonists, and its place in society, when faced with the challenges of the early twentieth century, he responded quite differently in the scientific, institutional, and political realms. The texts of the three presentations appeared as a preprint of the Institute under the title "Foundations in Disarray: Essays on Einstein's Science and Politics in the Berlin Years."

Symposium "The Varieties of Scientific Experience" June 19-22, 1997

Organizers: Lorraine Daston, Michael Hagner, Dorinda Outram, and Otto Sibum

The physician feels a pulse, the chemist tastes an unidentified compound, the naturalist dries an exotic plant, the physicist reads an instrument scale, the anthropologist notes down a myth, the physiologist severs an artery, the sociologist compiles a statistical survey. However multifarious these points of contact between inquirer and object of inqury, they do not begin to exhaust the variety of what we summarily call "experience" in the sciences. One word must be stretched to cover the most immediate and obtrusive of sensations, and the most delicate laboratory manipulations mediated by an arsenal of instruments. Although we sometimes distinguish between "observation" and "experiment," we have no special terms for the sensory observation of an explorer who registers degrees of bodily cold and the instrumental observation of the astronomer who deciphers the signals collected by a radio telescope. In principle, "experience" can be made to span the zoological observations made by Aristotle on the island of Lesbos as much as the computer simulations that now count as experiments in certain areas of physics and cognitive sciences. This symposium posed philosophical questions about the nature of scientific experience - its multiplicity, mutability, and entrenchment - in a historical vein.

Building on the recent work of the history, philosophy, and sociology of experiment and fieldwork, the symposium invited a broader exploration and more refined taxonomy of scientific experience from the late sixteenth through the early twentieth centuries, in the human as well as in the natural sciences. An inquiry into the multiplicity and history of scientific experience inevitably expands into an inquiry into the sources of scientific authority, the shifting boundary between the public and the private in science, and the establishment of scientific discipline and disciplines. Who may presume to interpret the dictates of nature, from the reader of auguries to the reader of instrument dials? When and how do certain forms of experience, such as manual skill or introspection, sink below the level of what officially counts as public knowledge, although they remain communicable by word or deed? How are novices initiated into the experiential regimens that will ultimately qualify them as practitioners of a discipline, in every sense of the word? These are questions that can be posed only if one pries experience apart from nature, and relinquishes the assumption that experience, like nature, is the same everywhere and always.

The symposium consisted of six sessions:

Session 1: Towards a History of Experience

Where do the categories - "observation," "experiment," "phenomenon," "data," "fact" - into which we parse scientific experience come from? Although these structures may come to seem like the very model of the self-evident (e.g. "facts"), they must not only be invented; they must also be continually modified in light of new scientific ideals and practices. This session delves beneath the apparent immediacy and transparency of experience to uncover its structures and histories.

Session 2: Constituting Means of Experience in Science

Historians who describe science as practice concern themselves primarily with the silent representatives of the past, the instruments, but neglect the productivity of the human actors. This session examines the complex relations between material technologies and human performance in the production of scientific knowledge.

Session 3: Location and Dislocation of Experience

Locality as both a category of scientific experience and of its evaluation has become increasingly important due to the rise of fieldwork science of global scope since the eighteenth century. At the same time, science lays claim to universal truths, independent of time and space contexts. This session aims to delineate both the historical roots of these tensions and their conceptual and cultural consequences.

Session 4: Constructions of Self-Experience

What is the identity of the self, both body and mind, who undergoes scientific experience and discipline? This session explores both the abstract philosophical construction of the self through categories like self-reflexivity, and the concrete physiological construction of the self through categories like spatial orientation and vestibular balance.

Session 5: The Personal Authority of Experience

Historians of science have tended to concentrate on the authority of research programs, institutions, and techniques, at the expense of that commanded by individual practitioners. This session aims to ask how the definition of the authority of the scientific practitioner has changed, and with what consequences. New approaches may be found in anthropology and other human sciences concerned with how other cultures construct authoritative persons who intervene in nature.

Session 6: Experience without an Experiencing Subject

Scientific experience can be heroically subjective, as in self-experimentation or introspection, or heroically objective, as in the recourse to photography and self-registering instruments. This session inquires into the origins and functions of objectified experience within both science and art, and into the creation of collective subjects of experience.

List of Speakers:

Robert Brain (Harvard University, USA), "Instrumental Currencies of Experience."

Michael Bravo (University of Manchester/University of Cambridge, UK), "Historioloquy and Hospitality in the Field."

Peter Dear (Cornell University, USA), "Experience, Authority, Expertise, Skill: How Can We See with the Eyes of Others?"

Michael Harbsmeier (Odense Universitet, Denmark), "Location, Dislocation and the Creation of Knowledge: Continuity and Change in Inuit-Danish Constellations."

Dorinda Outram (University of Cork, Ireland/ MPIWG), "The Explorer and Mimesis: Some Considerations on Personal Authority, and Translocation in the Enlightenment."

Simon Schaffer (University of Cambridge, UK),"On Astronomical Drawing."

H. Otto Sibum (MPIWG), "Shifting Scales."

Bonnie Smith (Rutgers University, USA), "Amateur and Professional Experiences of History in the Nineteenth-Century West."

Stuart Strickland (Northwestern University, USA, MPIWG), "The Ideology of Self-Knowledge and the Practice of Self-Experimentation."

Piers Vitebsky (University of Cambridge, UK), "Shamans, Patients and the Authenticity of Experience: The Sora of Tribal India."

List of commentators:

Rivka Feldhay (University of Tel Aviv, Israel/ MPIWG)

Peter Galison (Harvard University, USA)

Ian Hacking (University of Toronto, Canada/ Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Switzerland)

Dorinda Outram (University of Cork, Ireland/MPIWG)

Krzyzstof Pomian (École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, France)

M. Norton Wise (Princeton University, USA)

Rivka Feldhay (University of Tel Aviv, Israel/ MPIWG)

Berlin Summer Academy 1997, "Nature's Histories," August 18-29, 1997

Organizer: Simon Schaffer (University of Cambridge)

Who writes nature's histories? In the past twenty years two groups of scholars have attempted to write the history of human interactions with nature. One group, historians of the natural sciences, have been preoccupied with how human knowledge about nature has been painstakingly achieved on the basis of voyages of exploration, collections, classifications, measurements, and theoretical frameworks for understanding the figure and history of the earth. These historians have concentrated their attention on naturalists - their tools, their travels, their practices, their ideas. The assumption which informs their work is that insofar as we know anything about nature, it is only through the lens of a natural knowledge firmly embedded in cultural and intellectual context. The other group, historians of the environment, have investigated how nature and human activity have mutually shaped one another. Mountains, rivers, and forests are as likely to figure as agents in their narratives as the humans who attempt to master, understand, protect, or eradicate these parts of nature. For these historians, scientific knowledge of nature is largely taken to be unproblematic, a transparent window onto nature itself. Instead of focusing on human knowledge about nature and its validity, they chart human impact upon nature, and nature's impact upon humans. Two sharply contrasting histories of nature emerge, written in almost complete isolation from one another: historians of science write about nature as a mosaic composed of selected specimens, instrument readings, taxonomies, and theories; environmental historians write about nature as the brutest of facts, which makes, and is made by, human culture in the concrete form of settlement patterns, deforestation, climatic change, and pollution. Perhaps the most striking contrast between the histories of nature written by historians of science and environmental historians is that between narrative styles. For historians of science, naturalists carry the action of the story; nature is revealed (or occluded) through their investigations. For environmental historians, nature commands center stage; the story unfolds through nature's actions, and even interests and purposes. The aim of the Berlin Summer Academy 1997 was to bring these two groups of historians together in a forum that would promote exchange and reflection.

Following the format from previous Summer Academies, this eighth Berlin Summer Academy began with an intensive preparatory seminar for junior participants, led by senior docents Everett Mendelsohn (Harvard University, USA) and Dorinda Outram (University of Cork, Ireland and University of Cambridge, UK), assisted by Sarah Jansen (MPIWG) and S. Ravi Rajan (MPIWG). In addition to discussing key works at the intersection of the history of science and environmental history, seminar participants prepared commentaries on the papers presented during the second week of the Summer Academy by senior scholars:

List of speakers:

Dr. Christophe Bonneuil (MPIWG), "The right seeds in a cleared field" : Peasants and colonial experts in Senegal (1900-1950)"

Prof. Robert Brain (University of Cambridge, UK), "The Geographical Vision and the Popular Order of Disciplines, 1848-1870"

Dr. Michael Bravo (University of Manchester, UK), "The Accuracy of Ethnoscience: a Study of Inuit Cartography and Cross-Cultural Commensurability"

Prof. Dr. Franz Brüggemeier (University of Hannover), "Eine Kränkung des Rechtsgefühls?"

Prof. Mark Cioc (University of California, Santa Cruz, USA), "The Rhine as Kunstwerk: The Geo-Politics of Engineering in the 19th Century."

Prof. Michael Dettelbach (Harvard University, USA), "The Face of Nature: precise measurement, sensibility, and physiognomy in Humboldtian Science"

Dr. Richard Drayton (Lincoln College, Oxford, UK), "Environmental History as a Just so Story?: Alfred Crosby's Ecological Imperialism and the Margins of Nature and History"

Prof. Peter Galison (Harvard University, USA), "Wastelands of the Weapons Complex"

Prof. Dr. Gert Groening (Hochschule der Künste, Berlin), "The idea of land embellishment"

Dr. Susanne Hauser (Berlin), "Images of Nature in Reconstructions of Industrial Sites"

Dr. Sarah Jansen (MPIWG), "`Sozialparasiten' und `Tödlichkeitszahlen' - Zu Repräsentationsformen der Schädlingsbekämpfung in Deutschland, 1900-1925"

Prof. Gregg Mitman (University of Oklahoma, USA), "High Over the Borders: Visions of International Conservation from Pan Americanism to the Arusha Conference"

Prof. Robert Proctor (The Pennsylvania State University, USA), "The Natural and Political History of Radon"

Dr. Ravi Rajan (University of California, Santa Cruz, USA), "Sylvan Technics: German Forestry and the Politics of Monocultures in Colonial India, 1870-1900"

Dr. James A. Secord (Cambridge University, UK), "Narrative Landscapes: Interpreting the Scottish Highlands."

Prof. Dr. Ludwig Trepl (Technische Universität München), "Gefühlte Theorien: Innerstädtische Brachflächen und ihr Erlebniswert"

Seminar Participants:

Niti Anand (New Delhi, India)

Peder Anker (Harvard University, USA)

Beatrix Bäumer (Hopsten, Germany)

Conevery Bolton (Harvard University, USA)

Christina Brandt (MPIWG)

Sabine Brauckmann (Münster, Germany)

Tobias Cheung (Technische Universität München)

Alix Cooper (Harvard University, USA)

Helen Denham (Wolfson College, Oxford, UK)

Kerstin Dressel (Lancaster University, UK)

Patricia Faasse (Amsterdam, Netherlands)

Palmira Fontes da Costa (Darwin College, Cambridge, UK)

Michael Gordin (Harvard University, USA)

Nina S. Hinke Schultze (Wellcome Institute, London, UK)

Martina Kaup (Göttingen, Germany)

Susanne Köstering (Berlin, Germany)

Julia Lajus (Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg, Russia)

Angela Mayer-Deutsch (Frankfurt/Main, Germany)

Gerhard Mener (Deutsches Museum, Munich)

Karen Oslund (Institute for Archaeology and Ethnology, Copenhagen, Denmark)

Thomas Potthast (Universität Tübingen)

Sara B. Pritchard (Stanford University, USA)

Eugenia Roldan-Vera (Darwin College, Cambridge, UK)

Jutta Schickore (Berlin, Germany)

Friedemann Schmoll (Tübingen, Germany)

Frank Uekötter (Bielefeld, Germany)

Thomas Zeller (Deutsches Museum, Munich)

The next Berlin Summer Academy will take place in August 1999 on the theme "Science, Technology, and the Law." Organizers are: Lorraine Daston (MPIWG), Peter Galison (Harvard University), Everett Mendelsohn (Harvard University), Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (MPIWG), Simon Schaffer (University of Cambridge), and M. Norton Wise (Princeton University). Senior docents will be Michael Hagner (MPIWG) and Robert Proctor (The Pennsylvania State University).

Workshop "The Emergence of Scientific Image 1500 - 1700," September 19-21, 1997

Organized by Jürgen Renn in the context of the ESF Network on Science and the Visual Image 1500-1800

This workshop was funded by the European Science Foundation in the context of a "Network on Science and the Visual Image 1500-1800," initiated

Abbildung 3 Workshop "The Emergence of Scientific Image 1500 - 1700," September 19 - 21, 1997

Abbildung 3 (linke Seite leer)

by William Shea, Strasbourg University. The aim of the workshop was to bring together historians of science and historians of art in order to discuss the role of visual representations in the emergence of early modern science.

The title of the workshop may be somewhat misleading: The use of images as representations of scientific thinking was, of course, by no means new in the period to which the workshop was dedicated, as becomes particularly clear in the case of astronomy. Precisely because of the relation of early modern imagery to such older traditions, the first session of the workshop was dedicated to "Astronomy between Geometry and Imagery: the Transformation of Visual Traditions." Astronomy was considered here as a testing ground for pursuing the question of what the early modern period changed in a visual tradition with a very long history, in particular with respect to the relationship between geometrical representations and other kinds of visual representations such as images of celestial phenomena.

In a study of the role of images in science, the question of their role in scientific thinking is central and was discussed in several sessions. The session "Images and the Architecture of Knowledge" addressed, in particular, the relation between images and other representations of scientific thinking, such as texts or symbolic representations, and pursued the question of how the relation between image and other media changed in the early modern period. The session also addressed the role of images in the early modern period as methaphors and models for the organization of knowledge.

As is particularly clear in the case of the illustrations of the life sciences, images were used in the early modern period as tools of research, a topic to which the session "Images in the Process of Research" was dedicated. These tools, which were shaped by literary, mythological, artistic, philosophical as well as scientific traditions, profoundly affected the way in which knowledge about nature was acquired, elaborated and communicated. In this session these processes were discussed not only for the life-sciences but, in a comparative spirit, for other fields of knowledge as well. A central question was, how imagery shaped the understanding of fundamental scientific problems of the early modern time, such as the laws of optics and the laws of dynamics.

A further question extensively discussed at the workshop was the mediatory function of images between different cultural traditions, such as those between art and science or geometry and natural philosophy, but also between scientific and public culture. This question of the mediatory role of images was the focus of the session "Imagery as Link between Science and its Context." Here the iconographical traditions that shaped the scientific imagery of the early modern period were discussed, including, for instance, the sources of the imagery employed for representing the abstract entities of early modern science such as atoms. In the session "Images between Art and Science," art historians contributed their views of the role of images as mediatory instances between art and science and of the relation between the transformations which images undergo in both spheres at this time.

Finally, the central topic of the session "Visual Representation and New Experience" was the function of visual representations for reflecting on the new experiences of the early modern period, from the new worlds of machines to the new worlds beyond the ocean. It was studied, for instance, how the new experiences were assimilated to traditional imagery, such as that used in Aristotelian natural philosophy. With regard to the social history of early modern science, it was discussed which special role visual representations played as a medium of reflection for the protagonists of the new experience, the non-academic practitioners.

An edited book is planned, based partly on the workshop but also including contributions from other authors. The next workshop administered in the context of the ESF Network will take place in Strasbourg, and be organized by William Shea.

Speakers were:

Annarita Angelini, Università di Bologna

Michel Blay, CNRS, Paris

Horst Bredekamp, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin

Anne-Françoise Canella, Université de Liège

Alan Cook, Selwyn College, Cambridge UK

Peter Damerow, MPIWG, Berlin

Bruce Eastwood, University of Kentucky

Allan Ellenius, Universitet Uppsala

David Freedberg, National Gallery of Art, Washington

Gerd Graßhoff, MPIWG, Berlin

Robert Halleux, Université de Liège

Albert van Helden, Rice University, Houston

Wolfgang Lefèvre, MPIWG, Berlin

Christoph Lüthy, MPIWG, Berlin

Klaus Mauersberger, Technische Universität Dresden

Renato Mazzolini, Università degli Studi di Trento

Brian W. Ogilvie, University of Massachusetts at Amherst

Jürgen Renn, MPIWG für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, Berlin

Klaus A. Vogel, MPIWG für Geschichte, Göttingen

Matthias Winner, Bibliotheca Hertziana, Rom

The ESF Network members are:

André Aeschlimann, Bern

Steven de Clercq, Utrecht

Gérard Darmond, Strasbourg

Tore Frängsmyr, Uppsala

Paolo Galluzzi, Firenze

Mirko Grmek, Paris

Robert Halleux, Liège

Martin Kemp, Oxford

Jürgen Renn, Berlin

William Shea, Strasbourg

Walter Teg, Bologna

Planned Workshops and Conferences

Workshop "Greek Mathematics - Work in Progress," February 2-5, 1998

Workshop "QED: Mathematical Demonstration in Historical and Cross-Cultural Context," May 28-30, 1998.

Organizer: Lorraine Daston (MPIWG)

The aim of the workshop is to explore the ideals and practices of demonstration - primarily in mathematics, but also in natural philosophy, logic, and other fields which have at one time or another aspired to this standard of argument and proof - from a comparative perspective, both historical and cultural. Although demonstrative arguments (i.e., ones which attempt to show that their conclusions are necessarily, not just contingently true) are statistically rare in the history of argument viewed worldwide, they have nonetheless exercised a vast influence in the sciences, philosophy, theology, and even practical fields like law and medicine. The workshop addresses three principal themes:

1) What kind of intellectual traditions demand demonstration (as opposed to other forms of argument, such as rhetoric, and proof, such as empirical test), and when, why, and for what do they demand it?

2) How do the strategies and techniques of demonstrative argument change over time, and what are the conditions for the acceptance and rejection of innovation?

3) How are demonstrations translated, transmitted, and re-interpreted among different intellectual and cultural traditions?

Workshop in Honor of John Stachel "Space-Time, Quantum Entanglement and Critical Epistemology," June 5-6, 1998

Symposium "Demonstration, Proof, Test." June 25-28, 1998

Organizers: Lorraine Daston (MPIWG) and Arnold Davidson (University of Chicago)

Epistemology studies how we know and how secure our knowledge is. Historical epistemology studies, inter alia, the history of the specific ways devised to make knowledge secure, from the mathematical demonstration to the judicial proof to the empirical test. Although the words "demonstration," "proof," and "test" in their narrow senses refer to very different aims and procedures - contrast, for example, the demonstration, which seeks to circumvent an induction over cases, with the eminently inductive test of a hypothesis or a machine - their histories and current usages are closely intertwined in the major European languages. This conference is dedicated to posing philosophical questions about how knowledge, both theoretical and practical, becomes trustworthy in a concrete, historical vein: what are the forms of argument, the techniques, the procedures that guarantee various kinds of knowledge, and how did they emerge and become authoritative? Although the conference takes mathematical and scientific knowledge as its departure point, it follows the broader disciplinary and practical traditions of the words "demonstration," "test," and "proof" in including theological, medical, legal, and technological cases as well. Particularly revealing are examples which treat 1) prototypical forms of argument that become models for all other forms of secure knowledge (e.g., Euclidean geometry, or scholastic arguments for the existence of God); 2) procedures and standards that migrate from one disciplinary context to another (e.g., the application of legal standards of evidence to early modern civil and natural history, or the adaptation of proofing techniques to assess the gold content of coins for chemical analysis); 3) the introduction of novel methods to prove or test (e.g., the polygraph in the cross-examination of witnesses, or double-blind trials in medical research); and 4) the convergence and conflict of different methods for securing knowledge about the same objects (e.g., bodily tact versus instruments, or computer simulations versus physical experiments).

Conference "Postgenomics? Historical, Techno-Epistemic, and Cultural Aspects of Genome Projects," July 8-11, 1998

Organized by Hans-Jörg Rheinberger and Lily Kay (Harvard University)

The agenda of this conference will be somewhat unusual. Although the ethical, social, political, economical, and judicial aspects of human and other genome research loom large throughout, the focus of this workshop lies elsewhere. Its predominant aim is to explore, in a discussion among scientists, historians, and scholars in science studies, the epistemic, technical, and cultural challenges of genome research - especially the human genome - and to set them in an historical context. The intention is to assess how this type of research has developed: What visions have guided it, what kind of structures it has taken, what interactions and networks it has created, which challenges it poses, and, eventually, to what sort of biology and society it might be leading. Genome research as it has been practiced during the last decade is increasingly seen - not only by critics but also by participants - as an historically transient episode on the way to a postgenomic biology that is, by now, still largely conjectural; developmental biology, evolutionary biotechnology and rational drug design might be elements of this distant vision.

A first issue addressed is "Re-Visions of Genetics." Major punctuations have marked the genetic discourse of the twentieth century. The field has come a long way from viewing the genes as the formal units of preclassical and classical genetics to their conception as the material/informational units of molecular biology, with all their attendant historico-cultural valences; from the genome as the book of life to commercial genomes in the age of gene technology and bioinformatics; and now to the prospects of postgenomics in its various aspects of epigenetics, and to a reevaluation of genotypic as well as phenotypic complexity. To assess where science and society stand with respect to genome research these visions need to be re-evaluated. Of special interest in this context is the troubling discrepancy between a growing appreciation of organismic complexity and an ever more sophisticated scientific gene discourse, on the one hand, and a rising trend of naive genetic determinism in the public and economic sphere on the other.

The workshop's second issue concerns the question: "Whose Genome?" Since its inception, and to some extent contrary to its original impetus, genome research has become a variegated enterprise. Besides the human genome program itself with its focus on some "standard" genome, the assessment of human diversity has entered the arena, as have diverse programs to sequence several model organisms (including several bacteria, yeast, Arabidopsis, Caenorhabditis elegans, and mouse). Among these genome projects, the European yeast program, successfully completed in 1996, represents the first eukaryotic organism to be genetically sequenced in its entirety. Participants will not only survey their underlying assumptions and how these different projects are realized, but also ask the question of how scholars in science studies can and should study such enterprises.

This leads to a third array of concerns about the techno-epistemic dimensions of genome research. What does the recent explosion of sequencing efforts amount to? What kind of questions - biological and other - does it evoke? What kinds and modes of data and representations of the body will it lead to? What kind of challenges does it pose to biocomputing? What kind of organization do such collaborative and globally distributed efforts necessitate, involving many different research groups entrenched in widely different local research contexts and research traditions? What spaces of knowledge/power would genome sequencing open? Contrary to early critical voices, the assumption is that such massive sequencing will not result merely in dull repetition, but will give rise to unprecedented scientific and social prospects.

In the wake of a new effort to promote human genome research in Germany, it is deemed necessary not only to assess the ethical, social, and judicial aspects of incumbent new forms of human genetics, but to make an effort to contemplate and rethink the techno-epistemic and cultural dimensions of these developments, which have led to remarkable new constellations of basic and applied biological research. As an opportunity to concentrate on these aspects, an interdisciplinary and international conference will be organized. It is understood that this conference should bring together prominent as well as junior scientists and scholars from Europe and the United States to represent national and global perspectives. They will explore the historical, epistemic, and sociocultural dimensions of molecular biology and gene technology in an effort to assess the achievements that have been made in this field over the past 15 years and to address the perspectives and practices that flow from these achievements.

This conference has been initiated by Jürgen Renn and is generously supported by the Bundesministerium für Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie (BMBF) as part of the Deutsche Humangenomprojekt (DGHP).

Workshop "Instruments, Travel and Science," September 3-6, 1998

Organizers: H. Otto Sibum (MPIWG), Marie-Noëlle Bourguet (Université de Paris VII) and Christian Licoppe (Centre National d'Études des Télécommunications)

The historical focus of this workshop is the new instrumental and measuring culture with its changing cognitive practices emerging in Europe between the mid-eighteenth and the twentieth centuries. The diversity of local knowledge traditions in this period raises the question of how these locales became coordinated with each other. The papers to be discussed will analyze particularly the increasing use of quantifying practices and the voyages of instruments and skilled individuals during this period. With a view toward identifying the long-term historical processes which gave rise to this instrumental culture, the participants will discuss French, German, and British initiatives, as well as the relationship between these initiatives and the knowledge and techniques of travelers in other cultural spaces (India, Africa, Polynesia, Southeast Asia and North America).

Workshop "Reworking the Bench. On Research Notebooks in the History of Science," November 12-15, 1998

Organizers: Frederic L. Holmes (Yale University), Jürgen Renn and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (MPIWG)

Until recently seldom exploited by historians, research notebooks now are studied as valuable sources for understanding the investigative processes that lie behind public claims for discoveries and other novel findings. The growing interest in scientific practice among historians and other students of science is opening up a field of scholarly questions for which notebook records offer tools for fertile research.

Those who have worked with such documents have found them rewarding but challenging. Problems ranging from illegible handwriting to extreme compression and unexplained gaps pose obstacles to interpretation. Research notebooks often cannot be read directly like other types of unpublished documents, requiring instead special techniques of analysis.

The intent of the workshop is to bring together scholars who have used such notebooks in their studies of past scientists to share their experiences with each other and with other historians who are beginning to use them, or plan to do so.

Internal Colloquium of the Institute 1996/1997

January 17, 1996 - Bernhard Thöle: "Das klare und deutliche Bild der Welt"

January 31, 1996 - Hubert Goenner (Universität Göttingen): "The Quest for Ultimate Explanation in Physics, or Reductionism on the March"

February 28, 1996 - Klaus Vogel: "Kolumbus und Kopernikus. Die kosmographische Revolution und die Entwicklung der Wissenschaften"

March 13,1996 - Gabriele Metzler: "Zwischen Nationalismus und Internationalismus. Deutsche Physiker in der internationalen community, ca. 1900-1960"

March 27, 1996 - Mohamed Abattouy : "The Evolution of Galileo's Theory of Motion between 1600 and 1609: Analysis of some Manuscripts (vol. 72) and a Historical Reconstruction"

April 10, 1996 - Hanne Andersen: "From Transuranic Elements to Nuclear Fission: How Anomalies in Categorization Led to a Revolution"

May 22, 1996 - Doris Kaufmann: "Ein Experiment größten Stils an unserer psychischen Volksgesundheit - Psychiatrie im 1. Weltkrieg"

June 5, 1996 - Skúli Sigurdsson: "Mosaic of Language & History"

July 3, 1996 - Zeno Swijtink: "The Instrumental Life of Alexander von Humboldt"

July 17, 1996 - Dorinda Outram: "Passion and Interest: Patronage, Science and Gender in the Age of Absolutism"

July 31, 1996 - Cheryce Kramer: "Rhapsodien über die Anwendung von Kant, Reil und Moritz auf Geisteszerrüttungen"

August 14, 1996 - Edward Jurkowitz: "Phenomenological Physics: Phenomenological Theory as a Mediator of the Boundary Between Theory and Experiment in Superconductivity Research"

August 21, 1996 - Herbert Mehrtens (Universität Braunschweig): "Perspectives on 20th Century Mathematical Culture"

August 28, 1996 - H. Otto Sibum: "Experimental Performance and Limits of Representation"

September 11, 1996 - Gabriele Werner: "Männliche Weiblichkeit als Kreativitätsmodell - Künstlermythen im Surrealismus"

October 23, 1996 - Arne Schirrmacher: "Der Formalismus ist sowieso schlauer als wir... - Bemerkungen zur Philosophie der Naturwissenschaftler im 20. Jahrhundert"

November 6, 1996 - Staffan Müller-Wille: "Form and Function of Means of Representation in Linnaeus' Botany"

November 20, 1996 - Mitchell Ash: "Scientific Changes in Germany after 1933, 1945, and 1990 - Steps Toward a Comparison"

January 29, 1997 - Mordechai Feingold: "Mathematicans and Naturalists: Isaac Newton and the Nature of the Early Royal Society"

May 21, 1997 - Sahotra Sarkar: "J.B.S. Haldane and evolutionary biology"

December 3, 1997 - John Ziman: "Evolutionary Reasoning in Science and Technology Studies"

December 17, 1997 - Henry P. Krips: "Catachresis, Quantum Mechanics and the Letter of Lacan"

Publications and preprints


Abattouy, Mohamed. "Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) et la naissance de la physique moderne." In Histoire des Sciences et Epistémologie. Etudes, 3-11. Rabat: University Mohamed V, Faculty of Letters Press, 1996.

Abattouy, Mohamed. "Genèse et développement de la théorie physique chez Galilée : aperçu sur les manuscrits dynamiques du Volume 72." In Comment écrit-on l'histoire des sciences?, Ed. Salem Yafout. 25-47. Rabat: University Mohamed V, Faculty of Letters Press, 1996.

Abattouy, Mohamed. "Le concept de force chez Newton : explication mécanique ou interprétation alchimique?" In Workshop on the Concept of "Explanation" in the Sciences in Marrakesh, University Mohamed V, Faculty of Letters Press, 3-29, 1996.

Abattouy, Mohamed. "Sur la tradition arabe de la balance : Thabit ibn Qurra et al-Khazini." In Colloquium on the Philosophy and the Sciences in the Antiquity and in the Middle Ages in Marrakesh, University Mohamed V, Faculty of Letters Press 1997.

Abattouy, Mohamed. "Au-dessus ou au-dessous du Soleil : prolégomènes sur la position de Mercure et de Vénus dans la tradition astronomique andalouse médiévale." In Proceedings of the First Moroccan-Spanish Colloquium of History of Science (Chefchaouen, May 23-26, 1996), Chefchaouen (Morocco): The Center of Andalusian Studies in Chefchaouen, in press.

Abattouy, Mohamed. "Le Mss. Gal. 72 : une bibliographie générale." Revue d'histoire des sciences, in press.

Abattouy, Mohamed. "Le Style galiléen : 1. Galilée et la découverte de la loi de la chute des corps." Linguistica communicatio (Fez, Morocco), in press.

Abattouy, Mohamed. "Les Mathématiques de l'isochronisme chez Galilée." In Philosophical and Sociological Studies Dedicated to the Memory of Jamal-Eddine Alaoui, Fez: Faculty of Letters Press, in press.

Abattouy, Mohamed and E. Mazet. "Les De motu antiquiora de Galilée : leur structure et leur classement chronologique." Revue d'histoire des sciences, in press.

Albani, Matthias, Uwe Glessmer, and Gerd Graßhoff. "Deutung eines wissenschaftlichen Instrumentes aus Qumran." In Cahiers de la Revue Biblique, Ed. Ecole Biblique. Paris: Gabalda, in press.

Andersen, Hanne. "Noddack Neglected - the 1934 Suggestion of Nuclear Fission." In Proceedings of the Conference "Discovery of Elements" (Leuven, September 17-20, 1996), in press.

Ash, Mitchell G. "Denazifying Scientists and Science." In Technology Transfer out of Germany after 1945, Eds. M. Judt and B. Ciesla. 61-80. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publ., 1996.

Ash, Mitchell G. "Die Goldhagen-Diskussion im Internet." die tageszeitung, 17.07.1996.

Ash, Mitchell G. "Emigre Psychologists after 1933 : the Cultural Coding of Scientific and Professional Practices." In Forced Migration and Scientific Change. Emigre German-Speaking Scientists and Scholars after 1933, Eds. Mitchell G. Ash and Alfons Söllner. 117-138. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996.

Ash, Mitchell G. "Wissenschaft - Krieg - Modernität : einführende Bemerkungen (zum 32. Symposium der Gesellschaft für Wissenschaftsgeschichte)." Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 19 (1996): 69-75.

Ash, Mitchell G. "American and German Perspectives on the Goldhagen Debate : History, Identity and the Media." Holocaust and Genocide Studies 11 (1997): 396-412.

Ash, Mitchell G., Ed. German Universities Past and Future : Crisis or Renewal? Providence, RI: Berghahn Books, 1997.

Ash, Mitchell G. "Higher Education in the New German States : `Renewal' or the Importation of Crisis?" In German Universities Past and Future. Crisis or Renewal?, Ed. Mitchell G. Ash. 84-109. Providence, RI: Berghahn Books, 1997.

Ash, Mitchell G. "Kurt Gottschaldt und die psychologische Forschung vom Nationalsozialismus zur DDR : konstruierte Kontinuitäten." In Naturwissenschaft und Technik in der DDR, Eds. D. Hoffmann and K. Macrakis. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1997.

Ash, Mitchell G. "Wissenschaft, Politik und Modernität in der DDR : Ansätze zu einer Neubetrachtung." In Wissenschaft und Politik. Genetik und Humangenetik in der DDR (1949-1989), Eds. K Weisemann, P. Kroener, and R. Toellner. 1-26. Münster: LTI-Verl., 1997.

Ash, Mitchell G. "From `Positive' Eugenics to Behavioral Genetics : Psychological Twin Research under Nazism and Since." Historia Paedagogica (Special Issue), in press.

Ash, Mitchell G. "Psychologie in Deutschland um 1900 : Reflexiver Diskurs des Bildungsbürgertums, Teilgebiet der Philosophie, akademische Disziplin." In Fächergrenzen. Deutsche Philologien und Kulturwissenschaften um 1900, Eds. C. König and et al. Frankfurt a.M.: Fischer, in press.

Ash, Mitchell G. and Alfons Soellner, Eds. Forced Migration and Scientific Change : Emigre German-Speaking Scientists and Scholars after 1933. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996.

Berger, Jutta. "Chemische Mechanik und Kinetik : die Bedeutung der mechanischen Wärmetheorie für die Theorie chemischer Reaktionen." Annals of Science 54 (1997): 567-584.

Berger, Jutta. Affinität und Reaktion : über die Entstehung der Reaktionskinetik. Studien und Quellen zur Geschichte der Chemie. Bd. 9, Berlin: Verl. für Wissenschafts- und Regionalgeschichte Engel, in press.

Berger, Jutta. "Review of: Kritsman, V.A.; Zaikov, G.E.; Emanuel, N.M.: Chemical Kinetics and Chain Reactions : Historical Aspects. New York: Nova Science Publ. 1995." NTM (Neue Serie), in press.

Beurton, Peter John. "Darwins Notebooks." Jahrbuch für Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie 5, in press.

Beurton, Peter John. "Sewall Wright." In Klassiker der Biologie, Eds. I. Jahn and M. Schmitt. München: Verlag C.H. Beck, in press.

Beurton, Peter John. "Theodosius Dobzhansky." In Klassiker der Biologie, Eds. I. Jahn and M. Schmitt. München: Verlag C.H. Beck, in press.

Beurton, Peter John. "Was ist die `synthetische Theorie'?" Jahrbuch für Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie, Suppl. Vol., in press.

Beurton, Peter John. "Was sind Gene heute?" Senckenbergische Reden und Aufsätze, in press.

Bleker, Johanna and Annette Vogt. "Bericht: Deutscher Wissenschaftshistorikertag 1996 : der Eintritt der Frauen in die Gelehrtenrepublik - eine Zeitenwende?" NTM (Neue Serie) 5 (4 1997): 269-270.

Bonneuil, Christophe. "Conakry : le jardin où s'inventent les tropiques." La Recherche 28 (300 1997): 76-80.

Bonneuil, Christophe. "Crafting and Disciplining the Tropics : Plant Science in the French Colonies." In Science in the Twentieth Century, Ed. J. Krige & D. Pestre. 77-96. London: Harwood, 1997.

Bonneuil, Christophe. Mettre en ordre et discipliner les tropiques : les sciences du végétal dans l'empire français,1870-1940. Paris: Ed. des Archives Contemporaines, in press.

Bonneuil, Christophe and Patrick Petitjean. "French Scientific Research and Colonial Policy : the Creation of ORSTOM 1936-1945." In Science and Technology in a Developing World, Ed. T. Shinn and V.V. Krishna. 129-178. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1997.

Borzeszkowski, Horst-Heino v. and Renate Wahsner. "Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) und Joseph Louis Lagrange (1736-1803)." In Die großen Physiker, Bd. 1, Ed. Karl v. Meyenn. 229-242. München: C. H. Beck, 1997.

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Bourguet, Marie-Noëlle. "L'explorateur." In L'homme des Lumières, Ed. Michel Vovelle. 285-346. Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1996.

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Brentjes, Sonja. "The Relevance of Non-Primary Sources for the Recovery of the Primary Transmission of Euclid's Elements into Arabic." In Tradition, Transmission, Transformation. Proceedings of Two Conferences on Pre-Modern Science Held at the University of Oklahoma, Eds. F. Jamil Ragep, Sally P. Ragep, and Steve Livesey. 201-225. Leiden: Brill, 1996.

Brentjes, Sonja. "Remarks about the Proof Sketches in Euclid's Elements, Book I as Transmitted by Ms Paris, B.N., Fonds Latin 10257." In Mathematische Probleme im Mittelalter. Der lateinische und arabische Sprachbereich, Ed. Menso Folkerts. 115-137. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1996.

Brentjes, Sonja. "The Persian Transmission of Euclid's Elements." In Proceedings of the Conference on `Persian Scientific Texts', Teheran: Institut Français en Iran, in press.

Brentjes, Sonja. "Additions to Book I in the Arabic Traditions of Euclid's Elements." Journal for the History of Medicine and Science in press.

Brentjes, Sonja. "Alchemie in China." In Kulturgeschichte der Chemie, Ed. Horst Remane. Seculum-Verlag, in press.

Brentjes, Sonja. "Observations on Hermann of Carinthia's Version of the Elements and its Relation to the Arabic Transmission. Colloquium in Honor of B. A. Rozenfeld, August 27-28, 1994." Ames, IN: Modern Logic Publishing, in press.

Brentjes, Sonja. "Uqlidis." In Encyclopedia of Islam, Leiden: Brill, in press.

Burian, Richard and Denis Thieffry, Eds. Research Programs of the `Rouge-Cloître Group'. Vol. 19. History and Philosophy of Life Sciences (Special Issue), 1997.

Callens, Stéphane. Economie de la précaution : report for the DRAST of the MELTT. 1996.

Callens, Stéphane. "Erreurs fatales." Alliage (1996): 80-84.

Callens, Stéphane. "L'économie de la précaution." Clés (2 1996): 29-40.

Callens, Stéphane. "La mesure du risque : une histoire récente." Revue Française des Affaires Sociales (2 1996): 73-83.

Callens, Stéphane. "Les âges de la sécurité routière." Cahiers de la sécurité intérieure (25 1996): 107-117.

Camerota, Michele. "Un aristotelico bolognese corrispondente e oppositore di Galileo : Flaminio Papazzoni." Annali della Facoltà di Scienze della formazione dell'Università di Cagliari, Nouva serie 19 (3 1996): 111-139.

Camerota, Michele. "Una ristampa del `Saggiatore' con le correzioni di Galileo." Giornale critico della filosofia italiana, Sesta seria 16 (1996): 125-127.

Camerota, Michele. "Galileo e l'Accademico Incognito." In Atti del convegno di studi su Galileo nella cultura italiana e tedesca (November 10-13, 1994, Berlin), Ed. Michael Segre, in press.

Camerota, Michele. "Review of: Giornata Galileiana : 16 giugno 1994. Interventi di Mario D'Addio, Ugo Baldini, Sergio Pagano, Vincenzo Cappelletti. Prezentazione di Paul card. Poupard, Commentarii, Vol. III, n. 34, 1996." Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences, in press.

Castagnetti, Giuseppe and Hubert Goenner. "Albert Einstein as Pacifist and Democrat during World War I." Science in Context 9 (4 1996): 325-386.

Christlieb, Norbert, Gerd Graßhoff, Andreas Nelke, and Andreas Schlemminger. "How to Exploit an Astronomical Gold Mine : Automatic Classification of Hamburg/ESO Survey Spectra." In Proceedings of ADASS '97, Ed. R. Albrecht et al., in press.

Christlieb, Norbert, Gerd Graßhoff, Andreas Nelke, Andreas Schlemminger, and Lutz Wisotzki. "Automatic Spectral Classification." In Data Highways and Information Flooding, a Challenge for Classification and Data Analysis, Eds. I. Balderjahn, R. Mathar, and M. Schader. New York, Berlin: Springer, 1997.

Christlieb, Norbert, Gerd Graßhoff, Andreas Nelke, and Lutz Wisotzki. "Automatic Classification of Digitized Objective Prism Spectra." In Wide-Field Spectroscopy, Eds. E. Kontizas, M. Kontizas, D.H. Morgan, and G. Vettolani. 109-113. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1997.

Corry, Leo, Jürgen Renn, and John Stachel. "Belated Decision in the Hilbert-Einstein Priority Dispute." Science 278 (5341 1997): 1270-1273.

Damerow, Peter. "Food Production and Social Status as Documented in Proto-Cuneiform Texts." In Food and the Status Quest. An Interdisciplinary Perspective, Eds. Polly Wiessner and Wulf Schiefenhövel. 149-169. Providence RI: Berghahn Books, 1996.

Damerow, Peter. "Number as a Second-Order Concept." Science in Context 9 (2 1996): 139-149.

Damerow, Peter. "Prehistory and Cognitive Development." In Piaget, Evolution, and Development, Eds. Jonas Langer and Melanie Killen. Hillsdale: Erlbaum, in press.

Damerow, Peter, Gideon Freudenthal, Peter McLaughlin, and Jürgen Renn. Exploring the Limits of Preclassical Mechanics. 2nd ed., Galileo and the Genesis of Conceptual Novelty, New York: Springer-Verlag, in press.

Damerow, Peter and Wolfgang Lefèvre. "Wissenssysteme im geschichtlichen Wandel." In Enzyklopädie der Psychologie. Themenbereich C: Theorie und Forschung, Serie II: Kognition, Band 6: Wissen, Eds. Friedhart Klix and Hans Spada. Göttingen: Hogrefe, in press.

Damerow, Peter see also: Høyrup and Damerow

Daston, Lorraine. "Die Naturwissenschaften als eine neue, andere Kultur." MPG-Spiegel (3 1996): 51-56.

Daston, Lorraine. "Nice Work : Essay Review of: Norton Wise (Ed.): The Values of Precision." ISIS 87 (3 1996): 517-519.

Daston, Lorraine. "Strange Facts, Plain Facts, and the Texture of Scientific Experience in the Enlightenment." In Proof and Persuation. Essays on Authority, Objectivity, and Evidence, Eds. Elizabeth Lunbeck and Suzanne Marchand. 42-59. Turnhout: Brepols, 1996.

Daston, Lorraine. "The Cold Light of Facts and the Facts of Cold Light : Luminescence and the Transformation of the Scientific Fact, 1600-1750." In Signs of the Early Modern II. 17th Century and Beyond, Ed. David Lee Rubin. 17-45. 3. Charlottesville: Rockwood Press, 1997.

Daston, Lorraine. "Die Quantifizierung der weiblichen Intelligenz." In Aller Männerkultur zum Trotz, Ed. Renate Tobies. 69-82. Frankfurt a.M./New York: Campus Verlag, 1997.

Daston, Lorraine. "Possible Histories of Scientific Experience." Quaderni Storici, in press.

Daston, Lorraine. "Probability in the Seventeenth Century." In Cambridge History of Philosophy, Eds. Michael Ayers and Daniel Garber. 17th-Century Volume. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Daston, Lorraine and Katharine Park. Wonders and the Order of Nature, 1150-1750. New York: Zone Books, in press.

Emter, Elisabeth. "Augenblick : eine Zeitschrift wider die metaphysische Behaglichkeit." In signum um signum, Eds. Udo Bayer, Karl Gfesser, and Juliane Hansen. 52-59. Baden-Baden: Agis-Verl., 1997.

Emter, Elisabeth. "Einleitung: Von Hause aus Physiker und Mathematiker: der Philosoph Max Bense." In Max Bense: Ausgewählte Schriften, Bd. 2 : Mathematik, Natur und Technik, Ed. Elisabeth Walter. 1-18. Berlin: Metzler, 1997.

Emter, Elisabeth. "Man entgeht nicht der Technik, indem man die Physik verlernt : ein Plädoyer für interdisziplinäres Denken in der Literaturwissenschaft." LiLi 27 (106 1997): 130-138.

Engel, Edwin, Klaus Richter, Gerhard Obermeyer, Peter Briza, Andreas J. Kungl, Birgit Simon, Manfred Auer, Christof Ebner, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Michael Breitenbach, and Fátima Ferreira. "Immunological and Biological Properties of Bet v 4, a Novel Birch Pollen Allergen with Two EF-Hand Calcium-binding Domains." Journal of Biological Chemistry 272 (45 1997): 28630-28637.

Feldhay, Rivka. "The Cultural Field of Jesuit Science." In The Jesuits. Culture, Learning and the Arts, Ed. J. O. Malley. Toronto: Toronto Univ. Press, in press.

Feldhay, Rivka. "The Use and Abuse of Mathematical Entities : Galileo and the Jesuits Revisited." In Companion to Galileo, Ed. P. Machamer. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, in press.

Ferreira, Fátima, Christof Ebner, Bettina Kramer, Georg Casari, Peter Briza, Andreas J. Kungl, Rudolf Grimm, Beatrice Jahn-Schmid, Heimo Breiteneder, Dietrich Kraft, Michael Breitenbach, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, and Otto Scheiner. "Modulation of IgE Reactivity of Allergens by Site-Directed Mutagenesis: Potential Use of Hypoallergenic Variants for Immunotherapy." FASEB Journal, in press.

Ferreira, Fatima, Kora Hirtenlehner, Alexander Jilek, Jasminka Godnik-Cvar, Heimo Breiteneder, Rudolf Grimm, Karin Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Otto Scheiner, Dietrich Kraft, Michael Breitenbach, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, and Christof Ebner. "Dissection of Immunoglobulin E and T Lymphocyte Reactivity of Isoforms of the Major Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1: Potential Use of Hypoallergenic Isoforms for Immunotherapy." Journal of Experimental Medicine 183 (1996): 599-609.

Geimer, Peter. "Das Haus der Inkohärenz : Capriccio und Sammlung im 18. Jahrhundert." In Kunstform Capriccio. Von der Groteske bis zur Spieltheorie, Ed. Joachim Rees. 120-134. Köln: König, 1997.

Gierl, Martin. "Gesicherte Polemik : zur polemischen Natur geschichtswissenschaftlicher Wahrheit und zu Anthony Graftons `Die tragischen Ursprünge der deutschen Fußnote'." Historische Anthropologie 4 (1966): 267-279.

Gierl, Martin. "Dal libello al giornale : la difesa della verità da parte degli intellettuali e le prime forme di recensione in Germania." Revista di Storia della Storiografia Moderna, in press.

Glänzel, Wolfgang. "A Bibliometric Approach to Social Sciences : National Research Performances in 6 Selected Social Science Areas." Scientometrics 35 (3 1996): 291-307.

Glänzel, Wolfgang, Ed. Proceedings of the Workshop on "Bibliometric Standards" (June 11, 1995, Rosary College, River Forest). Scientometrics, Vol. 35, No. 2. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 1996.

Glänzel, Wolfgang and Hans-Jürgen Czerwon. "A New Methodological Approach to Bibliographic Coupling and its Application to the National, Regional and Institutional Level." Scientometrics 37 (2 1996): 195-222.

Glänzel, Wolfgang, E. J. Rinia, and M. G. M. Brocken. "A Bibliometric Study on Highly-Cited European Physics Papers in the 80s Based on `Physics Briefs' Source Publications and `SCI' Citation Data." In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators (October 4-7, 1995, Antwerp), in press.

Glänzel, Wolfgang and Urs Schoepflin. "A Bibliometric Study of Reference Literature in the Sciences and Social Sciences." Information Processing & Management, in press.

Goenner, Hubert, Jürgen Renn, James Ritter, and Tilman Sauer, Eds. The Advancement of General Relativity and its Contexts. Basel: Birkhäuser, in press.

Goenner, Hubert see also: Castagnetti and Goenner

Gradmann, Christoph. "Rezension zu Bettina Hey'l: Geschichtsdenken und literarische Moderne : zum historischen Roman der Weimarer Republik." Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur (IASL) 21 (1996): 218-223.

Gradmann, Christoph. "Koch, Heinrich Hermann Robert." In Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie, Bd. 5, Ed. Walter Killy. 643. München: 1997.

Gradmann, Christoph. "Ein Fehlschlag und seine Folgen : Robert Kochs Tuberkulin und die Gründung des Instituts für Infektionskrankheiten in Berlin 1891." In Strategien der Kausalität. Modelle und Institutionen ätiologischen Denkens in Medizin und Naturwissenschaft im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, Eds. Christoph Gradmann and Thomas Schlich. Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus, in press.

Gradmann, Christoph. "Hermann von Helmholtz : Historiography and Biography 100 Years Later." History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19, in press.

Gradmann, Christoph. "Hermann von Helmholtz als Physiologe und Mediziner." In PTB-Texte, in press.

Gradmann, Christoph. "Koch, Robert." In Reader's Guide to the History of Science, Ed. Arne Hessenbruch. London: Routledge, in press.

Gradmann, Christoph. "Money, Microbes, and More : Robert Koch, Tuberculin and the Foundation of the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin in 1891." In Pasteur, Germs and the Bacteriological Laboratory, Ed. Bernardino Fantini. Chicago: Chicago University Press, in press.

Gradmann, Christoph. "Review of: Heinz-Peter Schmiedebach: Robert Remak (1815-1865) : ein jüdischer Arzt im Spannungsfeld von Wissenschaft und Politik." Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, in press.

Gradmann, Christoph and Thomas Schlich, Eds. Strategien der Kausalität: Modelle und Institutionen ätiologischen Denkens in Medizin und Naturwissenschaft im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus, in press.

Graßhoff, Gerd. "4 Entries: Russels Paradox; Boolsche Algebra; Logizismus; Operation, logische." In Handbuch der Kognitionswissenschaft, Ed. Gerhard Strube. Stuttgart: Klett, 1996.

Graßhoff, Gerd. "Cognitive Modelling of Scientific Discovery Processes." In First European Workshop on Cognitive Modeling, Eds. U. Schmid, J. Krems, and F. Wysotzki. 1996.

Graßhoff, Gerd. "Michael Heidelberger: Die innere Seite der Natur : Gustav Theodor Fechners wissenschaftlich-philosophische Weltauffassung." Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 78 (3 1996): 347-351.

Graßhoff, Gerd. "Hertz's Philosophy of Nature in Wittgenstein's Tractatus." In Hertz Centennial, Eds. John Hughes and Alfred Nordmann. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1997.

Graßhoff, Gerd. "Wittgenstein's Metaphysical Tractatus." The British Journal for the History of Philosophy 5 (1 1997): 87-120.

Graßhoff, Gerd. "Discovery of the Urea Cycle : Computer Models of Scientific Discovery." In Computer Simulations in Science and Technology Studies, Eds. Petra Ahrweiler and Nigel Gilbert. Berlin: Springer, in press.

Graßhoff, Gerd. "Late Babylonian Astronomical Diaries." In Ancient Astronomy and Divination, Ed. Noel Swerdlow. Chicago: Chicago University Press, in press.

Graßhoff, Gerd. "The Methodology of Modeling the Astrophysical Object SS 433." Philosophia Naturalis (in press):

Graßhoff, Gerd. "Von der Steinplatte zur Sonnenuhr." In Tagungsband der 80. Jahrestagung der DGGMNT, "Instrument-Experiment", Ed. Christoph Meinel. Stuttgart: GNT Verlag, in press.

Graßhoff, Gerd and Timm Lampert. "Paul Engelmanns Psychologie graphisch dargestellt." Grazer Philosophische Studien, in press.

Graßhoff, Gerd see also: Albani, Glessmer and Graßhoff

Graßhoff, Gerd see also: Christlieb, Graßhoff, Nelke and Schlemminger

Haas, Norbert, Rainer Nägele, and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Eds. Liechtensteiner Exkurse III: Aufmerksamkeit. Eggingen: Edition Isele, in press.

Hagner, Michael. "Das Gehirn als Schlüssel zur Wissenschaft vom Menschen : die Schädellehre von Franz Joseph Gall und die Folgen." In Meilensteine der Medizin, Ed. Heinz Schott. 276-283. Dortmund: Harenberg Kommunikation, 1996.

Hagner, Michael. "Der Geist bei der Arbeit : Überlegungen zur Visualisierung cerebraler Prozesse." In Anatomien medizinischen Wissens. Medizin, Macht, Moleküle, Ed. Cornelius Borck. 259-286. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 1996.

Hagner, Michael. "Review of: Herbert Hörz: Physiologie und Kultur in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts : Briefe an Hermann von Helmholtz ; Ed. Klaus Wenig : Rudolf Virchow und Emil du Bois-Reymond : Briefe 1864-1894." NTM (Neue Serie) 4 (1996): 198-200.

Hagner, Michael. "Review of: Luigi Marino: Praeceptores Germaniae. Göttingen 1770-1820." Gesnerus 53 (1996): 261-262.

Hagner, Michael. "Review of: Sigmund Freud - Ludwig Binswanger : Briefwechsel 1908-1938." Sudhoffs Archiv 80 (1996): 237-238.

Hagner, Michael. "Zur Geschichte und Vorgeschichte der Neuropsychologie." In Enzyklopädie der Neuropsychologie, Bd. 1, Ed. Hans J. Markowitsch. 1-101. Göttingen: Hogrefe, 1996.

Hagner, Michael. "Zur Physiognomik bei Alexander von Humboldt." In Geschichten der Physiognomik. Text, Bild, Wissen, Eds. Rüdiger Campe and Manfred Schneider. 431-452. Freiburg: Rombach, 1996.

Hagner, Michael. Homo cerebralis : der Wandel vom Seelenorgan zum Gehirn. Berlin: Berlin Verlag, 1997.

Hagner, Michael. "Johannes Peter Müller." In Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie, Bd. 7, Eds. Walther Killy and Rudolf Vierhaus. 271. Darmstadt: Wiss. Buchges., 1997.

Hagner, Michael. "Monstrositäten in gelehrten Räumen." In Alexander Polzin : Abgetrieben, Ed. S. Gilman. 11-30. Göttingen: Wallstein Verlag, 1997.

Hagner, Michael. "Zwei Anmerkungen zur Repräsentation in der Wissenschaftsgeschichte." In Räume des Wissens. Repräsentation, Codierung, Spur, Eds. Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Michael Hagner, and Bettina Wahrig-Schmidt. 339-355. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1997.

Hagner, Michael. "Aufmerksamkeit als Ausnahmezustand." In Liechtensteiner Exkurse III. Aufmerksamkeit, Eds. Norbert Haas, Rainer Nägele, and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger. Eggingen: Edition Isele, in press.

Hagner, Michael and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger. "From Theories to Experimental Systems, Objects of Investigation, and Modes of Representation." In Experimental Essays : Versuche zum Experiment, Eds. Michael Heidelberger and Friedrich Steinle. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlag, in press.

Hagner, Michael see also: Rheinberger, Hagner and Wahrig-Schmidt

Heidelberger, Michael and Friedrich Steinle, Eds. Experimental Essays : Versuche zum Experiment. Interdisziplinäre Studien ; 3. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlag, in press.

Helbing, Mario and Ottavio Besomi. Galileo Galilei. Dialogo sopre i due massimi sistemi de mondo. Nuova edizione critica e comentata. Miscellanea Medievale e Umanistica, Ed. G. Billanovich. Padova: Antenore, in press.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Walther Nernst." In Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie, Bd. 7, Eds. Walther Killy and Rudolf Vierhaus. 364-365. Darmstadt: Wiss. Buchges., 1997.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Friedrich Herneck (1909-1993) : über Schwierigkeiten beim Schreiben von Wahrheit." Nachrichtenblatt der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geschichte der Medizin, Naturwissenschaft und Technik e.V. 46 (3 1996): 116-126.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Genauigkeit und Präzision und die Symbiose von Metrologie und moderner Physik." In Genauigkeit und Präzision in der Geschichte der Wissenschaften und des Alltags, Eds. Dieter Hoffmann and Harald Witthöft. 53-72. Bremerhaven: Wirtschaftsverlag NW, 1996.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Hans Bethe - ein Interview zum 90. Geburtstag." Physik in unserer Zeit 27 (5 1996): 214-217.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Heinrich Hertz und Berlin." In Fixpunkte. Wissenschaft in der Stadt und der Region. Festschrift für H. Laitko, Ed. Horst Kant. 257-273. Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschafts- und Regionalgeschichte M. Engel, 1996.

Hoffmann, Dieter and Hubert Laitko. Hermann von Helmholtz : Klassiker an der Epochenwende ; Jubiläumsausstellung zum 175. Geburtstag des Universalgelehrten ; Katalog . Bonn: Deutsches Museum, 1996.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Reaktionen der in Farm Hall internierten deutschen Kernphysiker auf die amerikanische Atombombe : öffentliche Podiumsdiskussion, XXXII ; Symposium der Gesellschaft für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, 26.5.1995 Greifswald." Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 19 (2-3 1996): 169-172.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Wider die geistige Trennung : die Max-Planck-Feier(n) in Berlin 1958." Deutschland-Archiv 29 (4 1996): 525-534.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "`Das zu wissen, wäre mir von hohem Werte' : über das Schicksal der Bibliothek von Max Planck." Physikalische Blätter 53 (10 1997): 21-23.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Der Physiker Friedrich Möglich (1902-1957) - ein Antifaschist?" In Naturwissenschaft und Technik in der DDR, Eds. D. Hoffmann and K. Macrakis. 361-382. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1997.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Der Physikochemiker Robert Havemann (1910-1982) - eine deutsche Biographie." In Naturwissenschaft und Technik in der DDR, Eds. D. Hoffmann and K. Macrakis. 319-336. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1997.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Ernst Mach." In Macmillan Encyclopedia of Physics; Vol. 3, Ed. John S. Rigden. 891-892. New York: 1997.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Ernst Mach." In Deutsche Biographische Enzyklopädie, Bd. 6, Eds. W. Killy and R. Vierhaus. 549-550. München: 1997.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Ernst Mach (1838-1916)." In Die grossen Physiker, Bd. 2, Ed. Karl von Meyenn. 24-36. München: C.H. Beck, 1997.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Max Planck (1858-1947) : Leben-Werk-Persönlichkeit; Ausstellung im Magnus-Haus Berlin, Oktober 1997." In Max Planck. Vorträge und Ausstellung zum 50. Todestag, Ed. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften. 53-90. München: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, 1997.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Naturwissenschaft und Technik und die Berliner Wissenschaftslandschaft um 1900." In Technikgeschichte als Vorbild moderner Technik, Ed. G. Kroker. 57-72. Bochum: 1997.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Normung von Maß, Zeit und Gewicht : vom deutschen Zollverein bis zur Physikalisch-technischen Bundesanstalt." In Europa wächst zusammen, Ed. K. Kröger H. Junius. 7-29. Stuttgart: 1997.

Hoffmann, Dieter. "Robert Rompe (1905-1993)." In Das Müggelheim Buch. Landschaft-Geschichte-Personen, Ed. Herbert Pieper. 168-170. Berlin: 1997.

Hoffmann, Dieter, Fabio Bevilacqua, and Roger H. Stuewer, Eds. The Emergence of Modern Physics : Proceedings of a Conference Commemorating a Century of Physics, Berlin 22-24 March 1995. Pavia: Universita degli Studi di Pavia, 1997.

Hoffmann, Dieter and Hubert Laitko. "Kompetenz, Autorität und Verantwortung : Helmholtz und die Wissenschaftspolitik im Wilhelminischen Deutschland." In Hermann von Helmholtz (1821 bis 1894). Berliner Kolloquium zum 100. Todestag, Eds. Dieter Hoffmann and Heinz Lübbig. 115-136. Braunschweig: Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 1996.

Hoffmann, Dieter and Heinz Lübbig, Eds. Hermann von Helmholtz (1821 bis 1894) : Berliner Kolloquium zum 100. Todestag. PTB-Texte, Bd. 5. Braunschweig: Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, 1996.

Hoffmann, Dieter and Kristie Macrakis, Eds. Naturwissenschaft und Technik in der DDR. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1997.

Hoffmann, Dieter and Thomas Stange. "East Germany's Physic(ist)s in the Light of the `Physikalische Blätter'." In The Emergence of Modern Physics. Proceedings of a Conference Commemorating a Century of Physics, Berlin 22-24 March 1995, Eds. Dieter Hoffmann, Fabio Bevilacqua, and Roger H. Stuewer. 521-530. Universita degli Studi di Pavia, 1996.

Hoffmann, Dieter and Harald Witthöft, Eds. Genauigkeit und Präzision in der Geschichte der Wissenschaften und des Alltags. PTB-Texte, Bd. 4. Bremerhaven: Wirtschaftsverlag NW, 1996.

Hoffmann, Dieter see also: Renn and Hoffmann

Høyrup, Jens and Peter Damerow, Eds. Changing Views on Ancient Near Eastern Mathematics. Berlin: Reimer, in press.

Hru¡ka, Blahoslav. "Der Heilige Hügel in der altmesopotamischen Religion und Mythologie." In Festschrift zum 65. Geburtstag von Hans Hirsch, Eds. Michael Jursa et al. Wien: Institut für Orientalistik der Universität Wien, in press.

Hru¡ka, Blahoslav. "Die Sumerer und ihr Heiliges : das profane und sakrale Wissen." In Assyriologica et Semitica (Festschrift für Joachim Oelsner), Eds. Hans Neumann and Joachim Marzahn. Münster: Ugarit Verlag, in press.

Huerta, Araceli M., Heladia Salgado, Denis Thieffry, and Julio Collado-Vides. "RegulonDB : a Database on Transcription Regulation in Escherichia coli." Nucleic Acid Research, in press.

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Kant, Horst. "Albert Einstein, Max von Laue, Peter Debye und das Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Physik in Berlin (1917-1939)." In Die Kaiser-Wilhelm-/Max-Planck-Gesellschaft und ihre Institute. Studien zu ihrer Geschichte. Das Harnack-Prinzip, Eds. Bernhard vom Brocke and Hubert Laitko. 227-243. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1996.

Kant, Horst. "Andrej Sacharov - Physik und Verantwortung." In Wissenschaftsforschung Jahrbuch 1994/95, Eds. Hubert Laitko, Heinrich Parthey, and Jutta Petersdorf. 259-290. Marburg: Verlag des Bundes demokratischer Wissenschaftlerinnen und Wissenschaftler, 1996.

Kant, Horst. "Betrachtungen zur Frühgeschichte der Kernphysik : vor hundert Jahren wurde die Radioaktivität entdeckt." Physikalische Blätter 52 (3 1996): 233-236.

Kant, Horst. "Die Bedeutung Hermann von Helmholtz' für die theoretische Physik des 19. Jahrhunderts." In Hermann von Helmholtz. Vorträge eines Heidelberger Symposiums anläßlich des einhundertsten Todestages, Eds. Wolfgang U. Eckart and Klaus Volkert. 207-239. Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus-Verlagsgesellschaft, 1996.

Kant, Horst. "Ein Pionier der Quantenmechanik wird 100 - Friedrich Hund zum Geburtstag." Physik in der Schule 34 (2 1996): 74.

Kant, Horst, Ed. Fixpunkte : Wissenschaft in der Stadt und der Region ; Festschrift für Hubert Laitko. Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschafts und Regionalgeschichte M. Engel, 1996.

Kant, Horst. "Kalendarium zu ausgewählten Daten der Naturwissenschafts- und Technikgeschichte (Schwerpunkt Physikgeschichte) für 1996." Physik in der Schule 34 (1 1996): 38-39.

Kant, Horst. "Peter Debye und die Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft." In The Emergence of Modern Physics. Proceedings of a Conference Commemorating a Century of Physics, Berlin 22-24 March 1995, Eds. Dieter Hoffmann, Fabio Bevilacqua, and Roger H. Stuewer. 505-521. Pavia: Universita degli Studi di Pavia, 1996.

Kant, Horst. "Physik in Berlin vor der Jahrhundertwende im Kontext ihrer kommunikativen Strukturen : eine Betrachtung zu möglichen Untersuchungsfeldern." In Fixpunkte. Wissenschaft in der Stadt und der Region, Ed. Horst Kant. 135-159. Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschafts- und Regionalgeschichte M. Engel, 1996.

Kant, Horst. "Rezension zu K. Hoffmann : J. Robert Oppenheimer : Schöpfer der ersten Atombombe (Berlin, Heidelberg, New York 1995)." Physikalische Blätter 52 (9 1996): 904.

Kant, Horst. "Rutherford und die ersten Dezennien der Erforschung der Radioaktivität." Physik in der Schule 34 (10 1996): 366-371.

Kant, Horst. "Emil Warburg und die Berliner Physik." Dahlemer Archivgespräche 2 (1997): 64-100.

Kant, Horst. "Kalendarium zu ausgewählten Daten der Naturwissenschafts- und Technikgeschichte (Schwerpunkt Physikgeschichte) für 1997." Physik in der Schule 35 (1 1997): 38-39.

Kant, Horst. "Peter Debye (1884-1966)." In Die großen Physiker, Bd. 2, Ed. Karl von Meyenn. 262-275. München: Beck, 1997.

Kant, Horst. "Review of: Lin Qing : Zur Frühgeschichte des Elektronenmikroskops. Stuttgart: GNT-Verl., 1995)." NTM (Neue Serie) 5 (3 1997): 199-200.

Kant, Horst. "The Establishment of Theoretical Physics as a Separate Field of Investigation and Teaching at the End of 19th Century." In Proceedings of the International Conference on History and Philosophy of Physics in Education, August 21 - 24, 1996, Bratislava , 123-133. Bratislava: 1997.

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Kaufmann, Doris. "Ethnologie et rapports entre les sexes : le compte rendu de Georg Forster sur son voyage autour du mode (1772-1775)." Gradhiva. Revue semestrielle d'histoire et d'archives de l'anthropologie, in press.

Kaufmann, Doris. "Eugenik-Rassenhygiene-Humangenetik : Wissenschaft von der Verbesserung des menschlichen Erbguts." In Schöpfungsträume und Körperbilder 1500 - 2000, Ed. Richard van Dülmen. Köln, Weimar, Wien: Böhlau, in press.

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Kaufmann, Doris. "Science as Culture : Psychiatry in the First World War and Weimar Germany." Journal of Contemporary History, in press.

Klein, Ursula. "The Chemical Workshop Tradition and the Experimental Practice : Discontinuities within Continuities." Science in Context 9 (3 1996): 251-287.

Klein, Ursula. "Chemiker-Virtuosi und chemisch-technologische Literatur im 17. Jahrhundert." In Dilettanten und Wissenschaft. Zur Geschichte und Aktualität eines wechselvollen Verhältnisses, Ed. Elisabeth Strauß. 49-68. Amsterdam: Rodopi-Editions, 1996.

Klein, Ursula. "Experiment, Spiritus und okkulte Qualitäten in der Philosophie Francis Bacons." Philosophia Naturalis 33 (2 1996): 288-315.

Klein, Ursula. "Review of: Michael Hagner, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Bettina Wahrig-Schmidt : Objekte, Differenzen und Konjunkturen : Experimentalsysteme im historischen Kontext. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag 1994." NTM (Neue Serie) 4 (2 1996): 125-126.

Klein, Ursula. "4 Entries: Elements; Glauber, Johann Rudolf; Lemery, Nicolas; Libavius, Andreas." In The Scientific Revolution. An Encyclopedia, Ed. Wilbur Applebaum. New York: Garland, in press.

Klein, Ursula. "Do we need a philosophy of chemistry ?" In Philosophy of chemistry, Ed. Nikolaus Psarros. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, in press.

Klein, Ursula. "Nature and Art in 17th-Century French Chemical Textbooks." In Special issue of the Sixteenth Century Journal, Eds. Allen G. Debus and Michael T. Walton, in press.

Klein, Ursula. "Paper-Tools and Techniques of Modelling in Classical Chemistry." In Models as Mediating Instruments, Eds. Mary S. Morgan and Margret C. Morrison. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, in press.

Klein, Ursula. "Paving a Way through the Jungle of Organic Chemistry : Experimenting within Changing Systems of Order." In Experimental Essays : Versuche zum Experiment, Eds. Michael Heidelberger and Friedrich Steinle. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlag, in press.

Klein, Ursula. "Review of: `Laws and Order in Eighteenth-Century Chemistry' by Alistair Duncan. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996." Ambix, in press.

Klein, Ursula see also: Mendelsohn and Klein

Kojevnikov, Alexei. "Das sowjetische Atomprojekt vor und nach Hiroshima." Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 19 (2-3 1996): 165-167 und 173-782.

Kojevnikov, Alexei. "President of Stalin's Academy : the Mask and Responsibility of Sergei Vavilov." ISIS 87 (1 1996): 18-50.

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Küttler, Wolfgang. "Formationstheorie und Moderne." Sitzungsberichte der Leibniz-Sozietät, Berlin 8 (Heft 8/9 1996): 17-56.

Küttler, Wolfgang. "Formationstheorie zwischen Dogma und Wissenschaft." Utopie kreativ 73/74 (November/December 1996): 65-80.

Küttler, Wolfgang. "Probleme des Geschichtsdiskurses im vereinigten Deutschland : historisches Denken und Geschichtswissenschaft im Übergang." In Mauern der Geschichte. Historiographie in Europa zwischen Diktatur und Demokratie, Eds. Gustavo Corni and Martin Sabrow. 159-186. Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsanstalt, 1996.

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Küttler, Wolfgang. "Gesellschaftstheorie, Ökonomie und Geschichte : Karl Marx im gesellschaftlichen und wissenschaftsgeschichtlichen Kontext der Modernisierung des Geschichtsdenkens." In Die Epoche der Historisierung, Bd. 3, Eds. Wolfgang Küttler, Jörn Rüsen, and Ernst Schulin. 377-395. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1997.

Küttler, Wolfgang. "Marxismus." In Handbuch der Geschichtsdidaktik, Eds. Klaus Bergmann, Klaus Fröhlich, Annette Kuhn, Jörn Rüsen, and Gerhard Schneider. 181-187. 5. überarb. Aufl. ed., Vol. Seelze-Velber: Kallmeyer'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1997.

Küttler, Wolfgang. "Perspektiven der Moderne im Werk Max Webers : Gesellschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften am Scheideweg." Utopie kreativ (77 1997): 11-17.

Küttler, Wolfgang and Helmut Maier, Eds. Gibt es erledigte Fragen an die Geschichte? : Beiträge eines wissenschaftlichen Kolloquiums aus Anlaß des 65. Geburtstages von Walter Schmidt am 1. Juli 1995. Schriftenreihe des Vereins "Gesellschaftswissenschaftliches Forum" e.V., Vol. 5. Berlin: Trafo Verlag Weist, 1996.

Küttler, Wolfgang, Jörn Rüsen, and Ernst Schulin, Eds. Die Epoche der Historisierung. Vol. 3. Geschichtsdiskurs in fünf Bänden. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1997.

Küttler, Wolfgang, Jörn Rüsen, and Ernst Schulin, Eds. Krisenbewußtsein, Katastrophenerfahrungen und Innovationen 1880-1945. Vol. 4. Geschichtsdiskurs in fünf Bänden. Frankfurt/Main: Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1997.

Küttler, Wolfgang and Walter Schmidt. "Walter Markov : 5.10.1909 - 3.7.1993." Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Jahrbuch 1993-1994 (1996): 377-380.

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Labbé, Morgane. "Les nationalités dans les Balkans : de l'usage des recensemants." L'Espace géographique, in press.

Lefèvre, Wolfgang, Ed. Fundamental Concepts of Early Modern Chemistry. Science in Context, Vol. 9, No. 3. Cambridge (U.K.): Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Lefèvre, Wolfgang. "Galileo Engineer - Art and Modern Science." Science in Context, in press.

Lefèvre, Wolfgang. "Hegels Geschichte der Philosophie aus wissenschaftsgeschichtlicher Perspektive." Hegel Jahrbuch 1997, in press.

Lefèvre, Wolfgang. "J. B. Lamarck." In Klassiker der Biologie, Bd. 1, Eds. Ilse Jahn and Michael Schmitt. München: C.H. Beck, in press.

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Lüdtke, Karlheinz. "Entstehung und Entwicklung wissenschaftlich-technischer Neuerungen in soziologischer Sicht." In Wissenschaftsforschung Berlin-Brandenburg. Jahrbuch 1996/1997, Eds. Hubert Laitko, Heinrich Parthey, and Siegfried Greif. Marburg: BdWi-Verlag, in press.

Lüdtke, Karlheinz. "Entwicklungen auf dem Gebiet der Biotechnologie im Prozess sozialer Interaktionen von Grundlagenforschern und Akteuren des biotechnologischen Ingenieurwesens : Projektskizze." Jenaer Beiträge zur Soziologie, in press.

Lüdtke, Karlheinz. "Wissenschaftsentwicklung und der Wandel disziplinärer Strukturen." Ethik und Sozialwissenschaften, in press.

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Lüthy, Christoph. "Kosmos aus Kügelchen : zur Entstehung des atomistischen Weltbildes." Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, Beilage Geisteswissenschaften, 11.09.1996.

Lüthy, Christoph. "The Life of `8K' : a Vagrant Microscope Objective." Gesnerus 53 (1996): 49-66.

Lüthy, Christoph. "Sébastien Basson, philosophe atomiste et régent au Collège de Die (1611-1625)." Revue Drômoise 90 (481 1996): 118-126.

Lüthy, Christoph. "Letzte Garde der Rationalität : Der `Golem' tobt: In Amerika wird zwischen den Disziplinen ein Wissenschaftskrieg geführt." Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 09.07.1997, Geisteswissenschaften.

Lüthy, Christoph. "Parabeln der Entdeckung : Neues zur Genese von Galileo Galileis Gesetzen." Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, 17.09.1997.

Lüthy, Christoph. "Thoughts and Circumstances of Sébastien Basson : Analysis, Micro-History, Questions." Early Science and Medicine 2 (1997): 1-73.

Lüthy, Christoph. "Bruno's `Area Democriti' and the Origins of Atomist Theory." Bruniana & Campanelliana, in press.

Lüthy, Christoph. "Renaissance Natural Philosophy, 1400-1600." In Storia della Scienza, Ed. E. Knobloch B. Copenhaver, N. Siraisi, C. Vasoli. § 11.b. 4. Rome: Enciclopedia Italiana, in press.

Lüthy, Christoph. "Review of: Marian Fournier, The Fabric of Life : Microscopy in the Seventeenth Century. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996." Technology & Culture 38 (in press):

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Lüthy, Christoph and William R. Newman, Eds. The Fate of Hylomorphism : "Matter" and "Form" in Early Modern Science. Early Science and Medicine, Special Issue ed., Leiden: Brill, 1997.

Lüthy, Christoph and William R. Newman. "`Matter' and `Form': By Way of a Preface." Early Science and Medicine 2 (3 1997): 215-226.

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Mallard, Alexandre. "Les réseaux de pratique instrumentées." In Actes du Colloque Emprunts et Innovation, Porquerolles, septembre 1995, in press.

Mallard, Alexandre. "The Pictures of Comparison." In Actes of the Symposium on Pictures in Communication, Roskilde Universitetscenter Copenhagen, 1-3 december 1994, in press.

May, Michael. "Causation and Discovery." In Computer Simulations in Science and Technology Studies, Eds. Petra Ahrweiler and Nigel Gilbert. Berlin: Springer, in press.

Mendelsohn, J. Andrew. "Abel Strikes Back : Review of Frank J. Sulloway, `Born to Rebel: Birth Order, Family Dynamics, and Creative Lives'." The Wilson Quarterly 21 (Winter 1996): 88-89.

Mendelsohn, J. Andrew. "The Body between Infection and Disease : Heredity, Etiology, and Constitution in European Scientific Medicine, 1890-1940." In Transmission. Human Pathologies between Heredity and Infection, Eds. Ilana Löwy and Jean-Paul Gaudillière. Harwood Academic Publ., in press.

Mendelsohn, J. Andrew. "From Eradication to Equilibrium : How Epidemics Became Complex after World War I." In Greater than the Parts. Holism in Biomedicine, 1920 - 1950, Eds. Christopher Lawrence and George Weisz. Oxford: Oxford University Press, in press.

Mendelsohn, J. Andrew. "Von der Ausrottung zum Gleichgewicht : Das Ende der Gewißheit in der Epidemiologie nach dem ersten Weltkrieg." In Strategien der Kausalität. Modelle und Institutionen aetiologischen Denkens in Medizin und Naturwissenschaft im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert, Eds. Christoph Gradmann and Thomas Schlich. Pfaffenweiler: Centaurus Verlag, in press.

Mendelsohn, J. Andrew and Ursula Klein. "Translation of Etienne-François Geoffroy, `Table of the Different Relations Observed in Chemistry between Different Substances, 27 August 1718'." Science in Context 9 (1996): 313-320.

Métraux, Alexandre. "Psychologie." In Au jardin des malentendus. Le commerce franco-allemand des idées, Eds. Jacques Leenhardt and Robert Picht. 475-480. Arles: Actes Sud, 1997.

Montada, Leo, Urs Schoepflin, and Paul B. Baltes. "Erwiderung auf die Kommentare von Hans. J. Markowitsch, Fritz Strack und Dieter Wolke." Psychologische Rundschau 47 (1 1996): 40-41.

Müller-Wille, Staffan. "Collating Plants from the Old and the New World in the Heart of Flourishing Holland." In Looking Through the Habsburg's Glasses, Ed. Inneke Phaf-Rheinberger. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press, in press.

Nikolow, Sybilla. "Die Mathematizität von Blut und Urin : statistische Methoden in der Medizin. Kommentar." In Die Normierung von Gesundheit : Messende Verfahren der Medizin als kulturelle Praktik um 1900, Ed. Volker Hess. 33-37. Husum: Matthiesen, 1997.

Nikolow, Sybilla. "Report to: Die Normierung von Gesundheit : Messende Verfahren der Medizin als kulturelle Praxis. Workshop auf dem Wissenschaftshistorikertag in Berlin 1996." NTM : Internationale Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Ethik der Naturwissenschaften, Technik und Medizin (Neue Serie) 5 (1997): 179-180.

Park, Katharine. "Impressed Images: Generation and Perception in Late Medieval Italy." In Histories of Art/Histories of Science, Eds. Caroline Jones and Peter Galison, in press.

Park, Katharine see also: Daston and Park

Presas i Puig, Albert. "Der Zirkel und das Weltbild." In Der "mathematicus". Zur Entwicklung und Bedeutung einer neuen Berufsgruppe in der Zeit Gerhard Mercators, Ed. Irmgard Hantsche. 41-72. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1996.

Presas i Puig, Albert. "Luca Pacioli i De Divina Proportione : matemàtica i experiència a principis del Renaixement." In IV Trobades d´Història de la Ciència i de la Tècnica, Alcoi, 13.-15. de desembre de 1996, in press.

Presas i Puig, Albert. Praktische Geometrie und Kosmologie am Beispiel der Architektur. Stuttgart: Steiner, in press.

Renn, Jürgen. "Zum Strukturwandel der wissenschaftlichen Öffentlichkeit durch elektronische Medien." MPG-Spiegel (1 1996): 2-4.

Renn, Jürgen. "Absturz bei einer schwierigen Gratwanderung." Tagesspiegel, 02.06.1997.

Renn, Jürgen. "Die Geburt der Statistischen Mechanik aus dem Geist der Elektronentheorie der Metalle." Physikalische Blätter 53 (9 1997): 860-862.

Renn, Jürgen. "Von der klassischen Trägheit zur dynamischen Raumzeit : Albert Einstein und Ernst Mach." Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 20 (2-3 1997): 189-198. (Also published in: Naturwissenschaften und Industrie um 1900, Ed. Werner Kroker. 25-38. Bochum: Georg-Agricola-Gesellschaft, Bochum, 1997)

Renn, Jürgen. "Einstein's Controversy with Drude and the Origin of Statistical Mechanics in his Atomism : A New Glimpse from the `Love Letters'." Archive for History of Exact Science, in press.

Renn, Jürgen and Dieter Hoffmann. "Lexikon Eintrag zu Albert Einstein." In Physik-Lexikon, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, in press.

Renn, Jürgen and Tilman Sauer. "Einsteins Züricher Notizbuch : die Entdeckung der Feldgleichungen der Gravitation im Jahre 1912." Physikalische Blätter 52 (9 1996): 865-872.

Renn, Jürgen and Tilman Sauer. "Einstein zögerte lange." Schweizerische Technische Zeitschrift 10 (1997): 6.

Renn, Jürgen and Tilman Sauer. "Einsteins Entdeckung des Gravitationslinseneffekts." Physikalische Blätter 53 (3 1997): 198.

Renn, Jürgen and Tilman Sauer. "Heuristics and Deductivity in Einstein's Discovery of the Gravitational Field Equations." In The Advancement of General Relativity and its Contexts, Eds. Hubert Goenner, Jürgen Renn, James Ritter, and Tilman Sauer. Basel: Birkhäuser, in press.

Renn, Jürgen, Tilman Sauer, and John Stachel. "The Origin of Gravitational Lensing : a Postscript to Einstein's 1936 Science Paper." Science 275 (5297 1997): 184-186.

Renn, Jürgen see also: Corry, Renn and Stachel

Renn, Jürgen see also: Damerow, Freudenthal, McLaughlin and Renn

Renn, Jürgen see also: Goenner, Renn, Ritter and Sauer

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Comparing Experimental Systems : Protein Synthesis in Microbes and in Animal Tissue at Cambridge (Ernest F. Gale) and at the Massachusetts General Hospital (Paul C. Zamecnik), 1945-1960." Journal of the History of Biology 29 (1996): 387-416.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Jenseits von Natur und Kultur : Anmerkungen zur Medizin im Zeitalter der Molekularbiologie." In Anatomien medizinischen Wissens, Ed. Cornelius Borck. 287-306. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer, 1996.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Molekulare Medizin als Paradigma? : Gentechnologie im Blick von Wissenschaftstheorie und medizinischer Ethik." In Meilensteine der Medizin, Ed. Heinz Schott. 555-561. Dortmund: Harenberg, 1996.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Between Biological Chemistry and Molecular Biology : Ernest F. Gale on Protein Synthesis, 1946-1958." In Qu'est-ce que la physiologie? Achèvement et renaissance, Ed. Claude Debru. 147-160. Paris: Vrin, 1997.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Cytoplasmic particles in Brussels (Jean Brachet, Hubert Chantrenne, Raymond Jeener) and at Rockefeller (Albert Claude), 1935-1955." History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 19 (1997): 47-67.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Review of: Deichmann, Ute: Biologen unter Hitler." Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 20 (1997): 251-252.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Review of: Latour, Bruno: Wir sind nie modern gewesen. Versuch einer symmetrischen Anthropologie." Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 20 (1997): 285-286.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Stichwort `Experimentalsysteme'." Information Philosophie 25 (4 1997): 36-39.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. Toward a History of Epistemic Things : Synthesizing Proteins in the Test Tube. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1997.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Von der Zelle zum Gen : Repräsentationen der Molekularbiologie." In Räume des Wissens. Repräsentation, Codierung, Spur, Eds. Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Michael Hagner, and Bettina Wahrig-Schmidt. 265-279. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1997.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Alles, was überhaupt zu einer Inskription führen kann." In Formen der Wissensvermittlung, Berlin: Akademie Verlag, in press.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Augenmerk." In Liechtensteiner Exkurse III. Aufmerksamkeit, Eds. Norbert Haas, Rainer Nägele, and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger. Eggingen: Verlag Klaus Isele, in press.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Bemerkungen zur Geschichte der Molekularbiologie." In Katalog Gen-Welten, Kunst- und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, in press.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Experimental Complexity in Biology : Epistemological and Historical Remarks." Philosophy of Science, in press.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Experimental Systems - Graphematic Spaces." In Writing Science, Ed. Timothy Lenoir. Stanford: Stanford University Press, in press.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Geschichte der Molekularbiologie." In Geschichte der Biologie, Ed. Ilse Jahn et. al. Jena: Fischer, in press.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Review of: Kay, Lily: The Molecular Vision of Life. Caltech, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Rise of the New Biology." History and Philosphy of the Life Sciences, in press.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Review of: Nyhart, Lynn: Biology Takes Form." Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, in press.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg. "Symbols, Icons, Indices : Commentary to Lily Kay: A Book of Life? How a Genetic Code Became a Language." In Controlling our Destinies, Ed. Phillip Sloan. Notre Dame: Notre Dame University Press, in press.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg and Michael Hagner. "Plädoyer für eine Wissenschaftsgeschichte des Experiments." Theory in Bioscience (Biologisches Zentralblatt) 116 (1997): 11-31.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg, Michael Hagner, and Bettina Wahrig-Schmidt, Eds. Räume des Wissens : Repräsentation, Codierung, Spur. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1997.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg, Bettina Wahrig-Schmidt, and Michael Hagner. "Räume des Wissens : Repräsentation, Codierung, Spur." In Räume des Wissens. Repräsentation, Codierung, Spur, Eds. Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Michael Hagner, and Bettina Wahrig-Schmidt. 7-21. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1997.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg and Michael Weingarten, Eds. Jahrbuch für Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie 3. Berlin: Verlag für Bildung und Wissenschaft, 1996.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg and Michael Weingarten, Eds. Jahrbuch für Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie 4. Berlin: Verlag für Bildung und Wissenschaft, 1997.

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg see also: Engel, Richter, Obermeyer and Rheinberger

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg see also: Ferreira, Ebner, Kramer and Rheinberger

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg see also: Ferreira, Hirtenlehner, Jilek and Rheinberger

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg see also: Haas, Nägele and Rheinberger

Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg see also: Hagner and Rheinberger

Rieke-Müller, Annelore. "`Ein Kerl mit wilden Thieren...' : zur sozialen Stellung von Tierführern im 18. Jahrhundert." Das achtzehnte Jahrhundert, in press.

Ritter, James. "Third Millenium Egyptian Metrology." In Ancient Mathematics, Eds. Jens Høyrup et al., in press.

Ritter, James see also: Goenner, Renn, Ritter and Sauer

Roux, Sophie. "Les explications de la philosophie mécanique." Lettre de la Maison Française d'Oxford (4 1996): 125-136.

Roux, Sophie. "Descartes atomiste?" In Atomism and Continuum in the Seventeenth Century in Napoli, Ed. Egidio Festa, Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici, 1997.

Roux, Sophie. "La nature de la lumière selon Descartes." In Le siècle de la lumière, Eds. Christian Biet and Vincent Jullien. Paris: Presses de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure de Fontenay Saint-Cloud, 1997.

Roux, Sophie. "Review of: Thomas M. Lennon : The Battle of the Gods and Giants. The Legacies of Descartes and Gassendi, 1615-1755. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993." Physis 33 (1-3 1997): 367-372.

Roux, Sophie. "Le scepticisme et les hypothèses de la physique." Revue de synthèse, in press.

Roux, Sophie. "Review of: Margaret J. Osler, Divine Will and the Mechanical Philosophy. Gassendi and Descartes on Contingency and Necessity in the Created World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1994." Physis, in press.

Roux, Sophie. "Force." In Dictionnaire d'histoire et de philosophie des sciences, Ed. Dominique Lecourt. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, in press.

Sánchez, Lucas, Jacques van Helden, and Denis Thieffry. "Establishment of the Dorso-Ventral Pattern during the Embryonic Development of Drosophila Melagonaster : a Logical Analysis." Journal of Theoretical Biology, in press.

Sauer, Tilman see also: Goenner, Renn, Ritter and Sauer

Sauer, Tilman see also: Janke and Sauer

Sauer, Tilman see also: Renn, Sauer and Stachel

Scheideler, Britta. Zwischen Beruf und Berufung : zur Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Schriftsteller von 1880 bis 1933. Vol. 46. Archiv für Geschichte des Buchwesens, Frankfurt am Main: Buchhändler-Vereinigung, 1997.

Schirrmacher, Arne. "Emigrationsphysik." Physikalische Blätter 52 (1996): 449-452.

Schmidgen, Henning. Das Unbewußte der Maschinen. Konzeptionen des Psychischen bei Guattari, Deleuze und Lacan. München: Fink, 1997.

Schoepflin, Urs. "Zum Neuaufbau von Bibliotheken in den neugegründeten Instituten in den Neuen Bundesländern." In XIX. Fortbildungstagung für Bibliotheksleiter/innen der Max-Planck-Institute und Arbeitsgruppen in Tübingen, Germany, in press.

Schoepflin, Urs see also: Glänzel and Schoepflin

Schoepflin, Urs see also: Montada, Schoepflin and Baltes

Schüller, Volkmar. "Metaphysik als Wurzel der Physik : zum 400. Geburtstag von René Descartes." Physikalische Blätter 52 (1996): 563-566.

Schüller, Volkmar. "Review of: R. S. Westfall: Isaac Newton : eine Biographie. Heidelberg : Spektrum-Verlag 1996." Physikalische Blätter 53 (5 1997): 454.

Schüller, Volkmar. "Christiaan Huygens." In Die großen Physiker, Bd. 1, Ed. Karl von Meyenn. 185-193. München: Beck, 1997.

Schüller, Volkmar. "René Descartes." In Die großen Physiker, Bd. 1, Ed. Karl von Meyenn. 170-184. München: Beck, 1997.

Schüller, Volkmar. "`Unsere Welt ist die beste aller möglichen Welten' : zur 350. Wiederkehr von Leibniz' Geburtstag." Physikalische Blätter 53 (3 1997): 235-238.

Schüller, Volkmar, Ed. Isaac Newton : die mathematischen Prinzipien der Physik. Berlin: de Gruyter, in press.

Schweber, Libby. "L'histoire de la statistique, laboratoire pour la théorie sociale." Revue Française de Sociologie 37 (1996): 107-128.

Schweber, Libby. "Controverses et styles de raisonnements : débats sur la statistique de population au 19e siècle en France et en Angleterre." Enquête 5 (1997): 83-108.

Schweber, Libby. "L'échec de la démographie en France au XIX siècle." Genèse, in press.

Sibum, H. Otto. "Charles Augustin Coulomb : einfache Maschinen in Theorie und Praxis." In Die großen Physiker, Bd. 1, Ed. Karl von Meyenn. 243-262. München: C.H. Beck, 1997.

Sibum, H. Otto. "Die Sprache der Instrumente : eine Studie zur Praxis und Repräsentation des Experimentierens." In Experimental Essays. Versuche zum Experiment, Eds. Michael Heidelberger and Friedrich Steinle. 141-156. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlag, in press.

Sibum, H. Otto. "Les gestes de la mesure : Joule, les pratiques de la brasserie et la science." Annales : Histoire, Science Sociale, in press.

Sibum, H. Otto. "Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Apparatus." In Instruments of Science. A Historical Encyclopaedia, Vol. 1, Eds. Robert Bud and Deborah Warner. 375-377. Hamden: Garland Publishing, in press.

Sibum, H. Otto. "An Old Hand in a New System." In The Invisible Industrialist. Manufactures and the Production of Scientific Knowledge, Eds. Jean-Paul Gaudillière and Ilana Löwy. 23-57. London: Macmillan, in press.

Sibum, H. Otto. "Vosproizvedenije mechaniçeskogo ekvivalenta teploty : toçnye instrumenty i esty strogosti v ranneviktorianskoj Anglii." Voprosy istorii estestvoznanija techniki, in press.

Sigurdsson, Skúli. "Physics, Life, and Contingency : Born, Schrödinger and Weyl in Exile." In Forced Migration and Scientific Change. Emigre German-Speaking Scientists and Scholars after 1933, Eds. Mitchell G. Ash and Alfons Söllner. 48-70. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1996.

Sigurdsson, Skúli. "Sublime and Worldly Crystals : Essay Review of D. W. J. Cruichshank, Hellmut J. Juretschke, and Norio Kato (Eds.) : P. P. Ewald and his Dynamical Theory of X-ray Diffraction. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1992." Annals of Science 53 (1 1996): 85-88.

Sigurdsson, Skúli. "Electric Memories and Progressive Forgetting." In The Historiography of Contemporary Science and Technology, Ed. Thomas Söderqvist. 129-149. Amsterdam: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1997.

Sigurdsson, Skúli. "Journals and the Passage of Time." hochschule ost. politisch-akademisches journal aus ostdeutschland 6 (3-4 1997): 9-20.

Staley, Richard. "Albert Einstein." In Reader's Guide to the History of Science, Ed. Arne Hessenbruch. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, in press.

Staley, Richard. "Born, Max (1882-1970)." In The New Dictionary of National Biography, Ed. Colin Matthew. Oxford: Oxford University Press, in press.

Staley, Richard. "On the Histories of Relativity." Isis, in press.

Staley, Richard. "Quantum Physics I: Quantum Theory." In The Reader's Guide to the History of Science, Ed. Arne Hessenbruch. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, in press.

Staley, Richard. "Quantum Physics II: Quantum Mechanics." In The Reader's Guide to the History of Science, Ed. Arne Hessenbruch. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, in press.

Staley, Richard. "Relativity, Theory of." In Reader's Guide to the History of Science, Ed. Arne Hessenbruch. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, in press.

Steinle, Friedrich. "Work, Finish, Publish? : The Formation of the Second Series of Faraday's `Experimental Researches in Electricity'." Physis 33 (1-3 1996): 141-220.

Steinle, Friedrich. "Exploratives vs. theoriebestimmtes Experimentieren : Ampères frühe Arbeiten zum Elektromagnetismus." In Experimental Essays : Versuche zum Experiment, Eds. Michael Heidelberger and Friedrich Steinle. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlag, in press.

Steinle, Friedrich. "Review of: Christine Blondel/Matthias Dörries (Eds): Restaging Coulomb. Usages, controverses et réplications autour de la balance de torsion. Firenze: Olschki 1994." Archives Internationales d'Histoire des Sciences, in press.

Steinle, Friedrich. "Review of: Lorenz Krüger (Ed.): Universalgenie Helmholtz : ein Rückblick nach 100 Jahren. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag 1994." NTM : Internationale Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Ethik der Naturwissenschaften, Technik und Medizin (Neue Serie) 5 (1997): 125-126.

Steinle, Friedrich see also: Heidelberger and Steinle

Strickland, Stuart. "The Ideology of Self-Knowledge and the Practice of Self-Experimentation." Eighteenth-Century Studies, in press.

Swijtink, Zeno G. "6 Entries: Beth Definability Theorem; Categorical Theory; Craig's Interpolation Theorem; Model Theory; Satisfiable; Standard Model." In The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, Ed. Robert Audi. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Swijtink, Zeno G. "2 Entries: Beth's Definition Theorem; Craig's Interpolation Theorem." In Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Ed. Michael Detlefsen (Sub-Editor). London: Routledge, in press.

Swijtink, Zeno G. "2 Entries: Error Theory; Probability." In Reader's Guide to the History of Science, Ed. Arne Hessenbruch. London: Fitzroy Dearborn, in press.

Swijtink, Zeno G. "The Disunity of Data-Analysis." Philosophia Naturalis Special issue : Brigitte Falkenburg and Wolfgang Muschik (Eds.) : Models, Theories and Disunity in Physics, in press.

Swijtink, Zeno G. "The Romantic Conception of Knowledge in Alexander von Humboldt." Perspectives on Science, in press.

Thieffry, Denis. "Contributions of the `Rouge-Cloître Group' to the Notion of mRNA." History and Philosophy of Life Sciences 19 (1 1997): 89-111.

Thieffry, Denis. "From Experimental Embryology to Developmental Biology : the metamorphoses of the gradient concept." In XXth International Congress of History of Science in Liège, Belgium, 1997.

Thieffry, Denis and René Thomas. "Qualitative analysis of gene networks." In Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing '98 in Maui, Hawaii, World Scientific, Singapor, in press.

Thieffry, Denis see also: Burian and Thieffry

Thieffry, Denis see also: Huerta, Salgado and Thieffry

Thieffry, Denis see also: Sánchez, van Helden and Thieffry

Thöle, Bernhard. "Die Analogien der Erfahrung." In Kommentar zu Kants "Kritik der reinen Vernunft", Eds. Georg Mohr and Marcus Willaschek. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, in press.

Thöle, Bernhard. "Die Einheit der Erfahrung." In Erfahrung und Urteilskraft, Ed. Rainer Enskat. Würzburg: Königshausen & Neumann, in press.

Thöle, Bernhard. "Kants Systemidee." In Architektonik und System in der Philosophie Kants, Eds. Hans-Friedrich Fulda, Hans-Dieter Klein, and Jürgen Stolzenberg. Hamburg: Meiner, in press.

Thöle, Bernhard. "Naturalismus, Reduktion und Qualia." In Fragen des Naturalismus, Eds. Geert Keil and Herbert Schnädelbach. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, in press.

Vogel, Klaus A. "Plus ultra? : Grenzbewußtsein und Raumbewältigung im Prozeß der Rezeption der überseeischen Entdeckungen des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts." In Grenzen und Raumvorstellungen (11.-20. Jahrhundert) = Frontières et conceptions de l'espace (11e-20e siècle), Ed. Guy P. Marchal. 123-133. Zürich: Chronos, 1996.

Vogel, Klaus A. "Wo Sprache endet : der Bericht des Anton Prätorius über die Folter und das Problem der selektiven Empathie." In Ein Schauplatz herber Angst. Wahrnehmung und Darstellung von Gewalt im 17. Jahrhundert, Eds. Markus Meumann and Dirk Niefanger. 188-204. Göttingen: Wallstein, 1997.

Vogel, Klaus A. "1492 - Europa und die Entdeckung neuer Welten : Literaturbericht." Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht, in press.

Vogel, Klaus A. "From Columbus and Copernicus : The Cosmographical Revolution and the Beginnings of Early Modern Science." Science in Context, in press.

Vogel, Klaus A. Sphaera terrae : das mittelalterliche Bild der Erde und die kosmographische Revolution. Göttingen: Vandenhoek und Ruprecht, in press.

Vogel, Klaus A. and Thomas Haye. "Die Bibliothek Konrad Peutingers : Überlegungen zu ihrer Rekonstruktion, Erschließung und Analyse." In Bücher und Bibliotheken im Zeitalter der Renaissance, Ed. Werner Arnold. 113-128. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1997.

Vogt, Annette. "`Auch Damen möchten den Doktorhut' : Promotionen von Frauen an der Philosophischen Fakultät der Berliner Universität zwischen 1898 und 1945." In Geschlechterverhältnisse in Medizin, Naturwissenschaft und Technik., Eds. Christoph Meinel and Monika Renneberg. 288-296. Bassum, Stuttgart: Verlag für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften und der Technik, 1996.

Vogt, Annette. "Bericht: 100 Jahre Frauen in der Wissenschaft : ein Tagungsbericht." IWK (Internationale wissenschaftliche Korrespondenz zur Geschichte der deutschen Arbeiterbewegung) 32 (4 1996): 552-558.

Vogt, Annette. "Emil Julius Gumbel : der erste Herausgeber der mathematischen Manuskripte von Marx." In MEGA-Studien 2/1995, 26-41. Berlin: Dietz, 1996.

Vogt, Annette. "Friedrich II. und der Mathematiker Leonhard Euler." Berlinische Monatsschrift 2 (1996): 86-90.

Vogt, Annette. "Heinrich Grell und Karl Schröter in Ost-Berlin - ein falsches Leben?" In Fixpunkte. Wissenschaft in der Stadt und Region, Ed. Horst Kant. 291-311. Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschafts- und Regionalgeschichte M. Engel, 1996.

Vogt, Annette. "Karl Weierstraß wird berufen." Berlinische Monatsschrift 6 (1996): 72-74.

Vogt, Annette. "Zu den naturwissenschaftlichen Promotionen von Frauen an der Philosophischen Fakultät der Berliner Universität zwischen 1898 und 1945 : Überblick und Einzelbeispiele." In Zur Geschichte des Frauenstudiums und weiblicher Berufskarrieren an der Berliner Universität, 34-57. Berlin: Humboldt-Universität, 1996.

Vogt, Annette. "Zum Gedenken an Boris Vladimirovic Gnedenko : (Nachruf)." NTM (Neue Serie) 4 (1996): 182-184.

Vogt, Annette. "Bericht: Deutscher Wissenschaftshistorikertag 1996. Wissenstransfer Osteuropa - Westeuropa." NTM (Neue Serie) 5 (3 1997): 181-182.

Vogt, Annette. "Berlins erste Professorin : der `Milch-Skandal' machte sie berühmt. Lydia Rabinowitsch-Kempner - die erste vom Kaiser ernannte Professorin in Berlin." Berlinische Monatsschrift 7 (1997): 32-36.

Vogt, Annette. "Das `cum laude' gelang erst im zweiten Anlauf. Alice Salomon." Berlinische Monatsschrift (9 1997): 34-38.

Vogt, Annette. "Die Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft wagte es : Frauen als Abteilungsleiterinnen." In `Aller Männerkultur zum Trotz'. Frauen in Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften, Ed. Renate Tobies. 203-219. Frankfurt/Main und New York: Campus Verlag, 1997.

Vogt, Annette. "Elsa Neumann - erste Promovendin an der Berliner Uni." Berlinische Monatsschrift 8 (1997): 27-32.

Vogt, Annette. "`In Ausnahmefällen ja' - Max Planck als Förderer seiner Kolleginnen. Zum 50.Todestag von Max Planck." Max-Planck-Spiegel (4 1997): 48-53.

Vogt, Annette. "Naturwissenschaftlerinnen in der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft." In Sparkurs in der Wissenschaft - Einsparung von Frauen? Tagungsbeiträge, Ed. Vorstand des Deutschen Hochschullehrerinnenbundes. 3-28. Berlin: Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 1997.

Vogt, Annette. "Review: Petra Werner/Angelika Irmscher (Hrsg.) Fritz Haber. Briefe an Richard Willstätter. 1910-1934. Berlin 1995." Berlinische Monatsschrift (6 1997): 135-136.

Vogt, Annette. "Vom Hintereingang zum Hauptportal - Wissenschaftlerinnen in der Kasier-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft." Dahlemer Archivgespräche (2 1997): 115-139.

Vogt, Annette. "Vom Hintereingang zum Hauptportal : Forscherinnen in der KWG." Max-Planck-Spiegel (4 1997): 62-64.

Vogt, Annette. "Die Berliner Familie Remak - eine deutsch-jüdische Geschichte im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert." In Tagungsband Geschichte der Mathematik, Ed. Michael Toepell. Heidelberg: Spektrum, in press.

Vogt, Annette. "Die Spielregeln der Objektivität : die ersten Promotionen und Promotionsversuche von Frauen an der Philosophischen Fakultät der Berliner Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität 1898-1909." In Der Eintritt der Frauen in die Gelehrtenrepublik. Zur Geschlechterfrage im akademischen Selbstverständnis und in der wissenschaftlichen Praxis am Anfang des 20. Jahrhunderts, Ed. Johanna Bleker. 31-48. Husum: Matthiesen Verlag, in press.

Vogt, Annette. "Issai Schur - vertrieben, aber nicht vergessen." In Menora. Deutsch-Jüdisches Jahrbuch, Ed. Julius Schöps. Bodenheim: Philo Verlag, in press.

Vogt, Annette. "`Mit ihr habe ich nicht geredet, nur mit ihrem Mann' - die Wissenschaftlerin Elena Aleksandrovna Timoféeff-Ressovskaja und ihr Verhältnis zu Deutschland." In Ring-Vorlesung 1995/1996, "Bilder und Selbstbilder im östlichen Europa", Ed. Osteuropa-Institut der Freien Universität. Berlin: in press.

Vogt, Annette see also: Bleker and Vogt

Wahsner, Renate. "Neobchotimoto treto." Filosofia 5 (5-6 1996): 61-68.

Wahsner, Renate. "Review of: Christoph Friedrich v. Pfleiderer : Naturlehre nach Klügel. Nachschrift einer Tübinger Vorlesung von 1804. Hrsg. und eingel. von Paul Ziche, Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog 1994." Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 44 (6 1996): 1056-1057.

Wahsner, Renate. "Review of: Wolfgang Neuser : Natur und Begriff. Zur Theorienkonstitution und Begriffsgeschichte von Newton bis Hegel, Stuttgart/Weimar: Metzler 1995." Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 44 (2 1996): 317-318.

Wahsner, Renate. "Totalität und Totalitarismus. Verschiedene Begriffe des Allgemeinen." In Hegel-Jahrbuch 1996, Eds. Andreas Arndt, Karol Bal, and Henning Ottmann. 236-242. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1996.

Wahsner, Renate. Zur Kritik der Hegelschen Naturphilosophie. Über ihren Sinn im Lichte der heutigen Naturerkenntnis. Hegeliana : Studien und Quellen zu Hegel und zum Hegelianismus, Bd. 7, Ed. Helmut Schneider. Frankfurt a. M.: Lang, 1996.

Wahsner, Renate. "Über die Berechtigung des analytischen Vorgehens in der Philosophie." In Analyomen 2. Proceedings of the 2nd Conference "Perspectives in Analytic Philosophy", Vol. 1: Logic, Epistemology, Philosophy of Science, Ed. Georg Meggle. 322-328. Berlin, New York: de Gruyter, 1997.

Wahsner, Renate. "Demokrit und die Quantenmechanik oder Erwin Schrödingers Rezeption des antiken Atomismus." Wiener Beiträge zur Geschichte der Neuzeit 23 (in press):

Wahsner, Renate. "Die Suche nach der objektiven Sinnlichkeit : über den Zusammenhang von Feuerbachs Sensualismus und Helmholtzens Programm einer empirischen Geometrie." In Materialismus und Spiritualismus. Zwischen Philosophie und Wissenschaften nach 1848. Ed. Walter Jaeschke. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, in press.

Wahsner, Renate. "Ein Brief über die Philosophie in der DDR." TOPOS 10 (Menschenbild), in press, 18.

Wahsner, Renate. "Hegels spekulativer Geozentrismus." In Hegels Jenaer Naturphilosophie, Ed. Klaus Vieweg. 299-308. München: Wilhelm Fink Verlag, in press.

Wahsner, Renate. "Naturphilosophie im deutschen Idealismus und alternative Konzepte. Review of: Bernd-Olaf Küppers: Natur als Organismus. Schellings frühe Naturphilosophie und ihre Bedeutung für die moderne Biologie (Philosophische Abhandlungen Bd. 58), Frankfurt a. M.: Vittorio Klostermann 1992, 138 S. ; Wolfdietrich Schmied-Kowarzik: `Von der wirklichen, von der seyenden Natur'. Schellings Ringen um eine Naturphilosophie in Auseinandersetzung mit Kant, Fichte und Hegel. (Schellingiana. Herausgegeben von Walter E. Ehrhardt im Auftrag der Internationalen Schelling-Gesellschaft. Bd. 8), Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog 1996, 234 S. ; Karen Gloy und Paul Burger (Hg.): Die Naturphilosophie im Deutschen Idealismus (Spekulation und Erfahrung. Texte und Untersuchungen zum Deutschen Idealismus. Abteilung II, Bd. 33), Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Frommann-Holzboog 1993, XIV 399 S.; Wolfgang Bonsiepen: Die Begründung einer Naturphilosophie bei Kant, Schelling, Fries und Hegel. Mathematische versus spekulative Naturphilosophie (Philosophische Abhandlungen Bd. 70. Frankfurt a. M.: Vittorio Klostermann 1997, 651 S." Philosophische Rundschau, 44 (4 1997): 288-303.

Wahsner, Renate. "Philosophie als System und Ungeschichtlichkeit der Natur - ein antiquiertes Konzept?" In Hegel-Jahrbuch 1997, Eds. Andreas Arndt, Karol Bal, and Henning Ottmann. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, in press.

Wahsner, Renate and Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski, Eds. Voltaire: Elemente der Philosophie Newtons. Verteidigung des Newtonianismus. Die Metaphysik des Neuton. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, 1997.

Wahsner, Renate and Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski. "Zur Editionsgeschichte. Zeitgenössische Polemik gegen Voltaires `Metaphysik des Neuton'. Voltaires Weg vom Literaten zum Philosophen. Die Mechanisierung der Mechanik (Einleitung zum edierten Titel)." In Voltaire. Elemente der Philosophie Newtons. Verteidigung des Newtonianismus. Die Metaphysik des Neuton, Eds. Renate Wahsner and Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski. 1-77. Berlin, New York: de Gruyter, 1997.

Wahsner, Renate see also: Borzeszkowski and Wahsner

Weinig, Paul. "Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini und sein Publikum." In Humanismus und früher Buchdruck. Akten des Interdisziplinären Symposiums vom 5./6. Mai 1995, Eds. Stephan Füssel and Volker Honemann. 71-82. Nürnberg: Carl, 1996.

Weinig, Paul. Aeneam suscipite, Pium recipite! Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini - Die Rezeption eines humanistischen Schriftstellers im Deutschland des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts. Gratia 33 : Bamberger Schriften zur Renaissanceforschung, Ed. Dieter Wuttke. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, in press.

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