Around 1900, art history found itself at a key point in its history, when it critically deliberated over its objects and methodologies and argued for a transgression of its disciplinary boundaries. The discussion about “world art” or “global art history” concerned not only the extension of the discipline from a cultural-geographical perspective, but also included questions on the applicability of art-historical methods. In view of the current expansion of the horizon of art history to a global dimension, whose “transculturality” lies both in relation to its objects and methodology, the current project is firmly in line with the current discussion within this discipline. Accordingly, questions of transfer and translation as well as the relation between the local and the global are central to this project. The epistemology of the history of art history is examined not only from the perspective of art-historical writing but also from exhibition practices in museums. Many art collections were in fact founded or reorganized during the period under investigation.