Preprints

Nr Authors Title Year
460 Stefano Bordoni Unexpected Convergence between Science and Philosophy: A debate on determinism in France around 1880 2014 Download PDF

Abstract

In 1878 the mathematician Joseph Boussinesq pointed out a structural analogy between some features of living beings and singular solutions of differential equations. Sudden transitions between ordinary and singular solutions could represent sudden release of energy in biological process and in the fulfilment of free will. He assumed that a guiding principle rather than a physical action might lead the system beyond the threshold of singular points. Deterministic processes, which corresponded to ordinary solutions, gave way to indeterministic processes, which corresponded to singular solutions. Alongside the mathematical pathway, a different conceptual stream had already emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century. Both physicists and physiologists made use of concepts like triggering actions and guiding principles in order to represent explosions and unstable equilibrium in inanimate matter, and the complex interaction between volitions and motions in human beings. A third conceptual stream was represented by philosophical debates on the problematic link between deterministic physical laws and free will. The new issues stemming from the fields of mathematics, physics, and life sciences found room in philosophical journals, but the interest of philosophers gradually faded away towards the late 1880s. At the same time, the majority of mathematicians and physicists had never shown a systematic interest in this subject matter. We find in Boussinesq an original and almost isolated attempt to merge mathematical, physical, biological issues into a consistent philosophical framework. However questionable his research programme might be, it was actually a daring and systematic one. In the twenty-first century, some philosophers of science rediscovered the problematic link between determinism and singular solutions of differential equations. The memory of late nineteenth-century debates had already disappeared, but recently Marij van Strien has put forward a direct comparison between those debates and recent theses on determinism.
459 Simone Mammola Il problema della grandezza della terra e dell’acqua negli scritti di Alessandro Piccolomini, Antonio Berga e G. B. Benedetti e la progressiva dissoluzione della cosmologia delle sfere elementari nel secondo ‘500 2014 Download PDF

Abstract

A debate which traverses much of the scientific literature in the Renaissance is connected to the problem of the relative greater “size” of earth or water and their reciprocal disposition. Stimulated by the great geographical discoveries of the time, intellectuals had to find new solutions to the old problem inherited from Aristotelian physics about how it was possible that an habitable land could emerge, when the natural weight of the earth would supposedly submerge it fully below the sphere of water. The examination of some significant texts of Alessandro Piccolomini, Antonio Berga and Giovanni Battista Benedetti documents the emergence of the new, integral concept of “globe” (globus terracqueus), which can be compared to the model of concentric spheres of the elements handed down by the whole Aristotelian tradition – a concept already proposed by Copernicus, but which became increasingly popular in the following decades. According to this new model, water and earth were no longer to be considered like two distinct spheres contained in one another, but rather as two elements which continuously interact with one another within a single sphere, and through a wide range of phenomena such as tides, floods, erosion, landslides, etc.. Accepting this innovation meant not only creating the conditions for the rise of the issue of a “history” of the Earth, but also involved dealing a first blow to the terrestrial physics of Aristotle. This blow was followed a few years later by the observations of Brahe, Kepler and Galileo which cast further doubt on Aristotle’s celestial physics.
458 Pietro Daniel Omodeo Efemeridi e critica all’astrologia tra filosofia naturale ed etica: La contesa tra Benedetti e Altavilla nel tardo Rinascimento torinese 2014

Abstract

The cultural meaning of Renaissance debates on ephemerides cannot be restricted to the technical dimension of astronomical computation. Predictive precision was in fact the presupposition for astrological forecasts. Given the intellectual and ethical relevance of astrology in that epoch, a criticism of the reliability of ephemerides invested also the tenability of astrological beliefs, and questioned social and cultural practices linked to it. The interconnection of mathematical-astronomical, astrological, philosophical and ethical issues in debates over heavenly predictions is witnessed by the fierceness of the Turin controversy of 1580-1581 opposing the astrology critique Benedetto Altavilla and the ducal mathematician Giovanni Battista Benedetti. The preprint includes a transcription of selected passages from four Turin publications by these authors as an appendix: Benedetto Altavilla, Animadversiones in Ephemeridas, Taurini, apud haeredes Nicolai Bevilacquae, 1580; idem, Breve discorso intorno gli errori dei calculi astronomici, Turino, appresso gli heredi del Bevilacqua, 1580; idem, In Nome di Dio, broadside (11 August 1581); Giovan Battista Benedetti, Lettera per modo di discorso... all’illustre Bernardo Trotto, intorno ad alcune nuove riprensioni, ed emendazioni, contra alli Calculatori delle Effemeridi, Torino, appresso gl’heredi del Bevilacqua, 1581.
457 F. Jamil Ragep From Tūn to Turun: The Twists and Turns of the Ṭūsī-Couple 2014 Download PDF

Abstract

In discussions of the possible connections between Copernicus and his Islamic predecessors, the so-called Ṭūsī-couple, invented by the 13th-century Persian polymath Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī, has often been invoked by various modern historians to bolster their cases for or against transmission from Islamic astronomy to Copernicus. This paper seeks to clarify the possible routes of transmission by first explaining the various versions of the Ṭūsī-couple that were meant to produce either straight-line or curvilinear oscillations from circular motions, and then summarizing what is known about this transmission, providing new evidence as well as reinterpreting existing evidence. It becomes clear that there are a variety of avenues by which the various couples could have come into Europe, such as through Byzantium, through Spain, and through Italy, and that Copernicus acknowledges the earlier existence of at least one version of the couple in a draft of De Revolutionibus. The paper concludes with a historiographical note that maintains that the long, complex development and use of the Ṭūsī-couples within an Islamic context, and the lack of anything comparable in Europe before Copernicus, provides a compelling argument for transmission rather than parallel discovery within a Latin/European context.
456 David E. Rowe and Robert Schulmann General Relativity in the Context of Weimar Culture 2014 Download PDF

Abstract

To develop a more fine-grained picture of how the theory of general relativity was received and elaborated from 1914 until 1924, we move outside the personal networks of its creator, Albert Einstein. We set aside the question when and why Einstein himself came to recognize that the new field physics required higher mathematics and focus on the cross-fertilization between mathematics and physics that contributed to the theory. The breakdown of disciplinary boundaries had a greater impact on academic politics in Germany, as the intrusion of mathematics heightened tensions that had long been brewing within the German physics community. A second factor contributing to the tensions was the increasing prominence in the community of German physicists of those of Jewish extraction. We examine these phenomena in two localities, Göttingen and Berlin that serve as focal points for polarization in the natural sciences. First, we discuss the openness in their scientific approach and in their recruitment policy of the paladins of Göttingen—Felix Klein and David Hilbert—and then proceed to trace the fruits of that policy in the successor generation that was largely composed of Jews. We then look at Einstein in Berlin, and more specifically, at how his “conversion” to Zionism in 1920 crystallized his idiosyncratic views on cultural politics that alienated him from others in the Berlin community, including some of his Jewish colleagues. We examine four incidents that undergird his solidarity with Hilbert, a “Gesinnungsgenosse,” who believed that belonging to the international community of scientists took precedence over any sense of patriotic duty or ethnic identity.
455 Carola Sachse Grundlagenforschung. Zur Historisierung eines wissenschaftspolitischen Ordnungsprinzips am Beispiel der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft (1945–1970) 2014

Abstract

The Max Planck Society (MPG) has presented itself since its reestablishment in 1948 as a refuge for basic research in the Federal German Republic. This programmatic claim developed under the political conditions of the middle 1940s, during which the end of the Second World War overlapped with the beginning of the Cold War and the western part of the subjugated “Third Reich” very quickly was drawn in as the inevitable junior partner of the western alliance. Within an American-dominated discourse, what had up until then been a hybrid concept changed into a dichotomous one: basic research was described as being clearly distinguishable from applied research, that is, as not immediately relevant for politics, economics, or the military. It was moreover elevated to a symbol of freedom, created by the western democracies to use against the totalitarian Stalinist opponent. With this semantic charge, the concept of basic research forged during the Cold War did three things for the MPG: as far as dealing with the past was concerned, it helped obscure the hybrid character of research, which the Kaiser Wilhelm Society had demonstrated as part of the NS-regime, especially in armaments research. With regard to contemporary politics, during the immediate postwar period it helped legitimate the organizational integrity of the MPG, its institutional independence, and the scientific autonomy of its members. For the future, the commitment to basic research remained a constantly renewing, yet diffuse mission. Debates about closing, reforming, or reestablishing Max Planck institutes show that the research plans were supposed to satisfy the claims about “basic research,” but also that this yardstick could never be calibrated in a binding way. Basic research served as a vague yet undisputed parameter for strategic scientific decisions within the MPG and its positioning in the scientific system of the Federal Republic.
454 Klaus Geus and Mark Geller (eds.) Esoteric Knowledge in Antiquity (TOPOI – Dahlem Seminar for the History of Ancient Sciences Vol. II) 2014 Download PDF

Abstract

Esoteric Knowledge remains a central problem of ancient science, since much of the scholarly heritage of ancient schooling was only meant for a small circle of adherents, rather than for the general public. For this reason, knowledge was restricted within schools or within professions, only accessible to those with a personal connection to experts and savants. The expression ‘esoteric’ is used today rather indiscriminately. Within the category of ‘esoteric knowledge’ one understands a variety of related expressions, such as ‘mystical’ or ‘occult’, as well as the more concrete ‘absolute’ or ‘elevated’ knowledge, which can also be considered as ‘hidden’, ‘secret’, or ‘inaccessible’, and even ‘fanciful’ or carried away. The confused pattern of these definitions is the reason why a closer look at the historical development of this concept is so important. This Preprint provides case studies of esoteric knowledge, within the realms of philosophy (e.g. esoteric vs. exoteric knowledge), religious knowledge (early Christian thought, Gnosticism, cultic practices), geography, divination, alchemy, dream interpretation, and iconography. Examples of esoteric knowledge presented here extend from Mesopotamia and Egypt into Graeco-Roman and early medieval models, in Akkadian, Egyptian, Syriac, Greek and Latin sources, indicating the durability and continuity of this concept.
453 Horst Nowacki Zur Vorgeschichte des Schiffbauversuchswesens 2014

Abstract

Modern ship model testing has a long international prehistory of several centuries. This paper deals with its precursors from the 17th c. to its maturing by the beginning of the 20th c., also in Germany. The prerequisites for a practicable, design relevant model test methodology were created in many steps with important contributions by prominent scientists such as Huygens, Mariotte, Newton, Van Zwijndrecht, Chapman, D'Alembert, Beaufoy, John Scott Russell, Reech, Rankine, William and Robert Froude, David Taylor and many others. These developments characterize the status reached by the turn to the 20th c. when several German model basins were founded, too.
452 Jens Høyrup Algebra in Cuneiform. Introduction to an Old Babylonian Geometrical Technique 2013 Download PDF

Abstract

Around 1930, it was discovered that certain Babylonian cuneiform texts contain calculations that agree with what turns up in the solution of second-degree equations. Since the meaning of most of the terminology had to be derived from the numbers contained in the texts, this led to a reading of these as numerically based algebra. This interpretation stood unchallenged until the author of the present book discovered around 1982 that it was incompatible the global structure of the terminology. As it turns out, two different and non-synonymous operations had both been understood as addition; two different subtractive operations had been conflated, and four different operations had been seen as one and the same multiplication. Instead, the structure points to a technique based on a geometry of squares and rectangles with measurable sides and areas. Avoiding such philological detail as would only be informative for readers that are familiar with basic Assyriology (yet with appendixes meant for these), the book analyses a number of texts in "conformal translation", that is, a translation in which the same Babylonian term is always translated in the same way and, more important, different terms are always translated differently. All of these texts are from the second half of the Old Babylonian period, that is, 1800-1600 BCE. It is indeed during this period that the "algebraic" discipline, and Babylonian mathematics in general, culminates. Even though a few texts from the late period show some similarities with what comes from the Old Babylonian period, they are but remnants. Beyond analyzing texts, this preprint gives a general characterization of the kind of mathematics involved, and locates it within the context of the Old Babylonian scribe school and its particular culture. Finally, it describes the origin of the discipline and its impact in later mathematics, not least Euclid's geometry and genuine algebra as created in medieval Islam and taken over in European medieval and Renaissance mathematics.
451 Renate Wahsner Tausch – Allgemeines – Ontologie oder Das Auseinanderlegen des Konkreten und seine Aufhebung 2013 Download PDF

Abstract

Two theses by Hegel, which at first sight seem to be far away from each other, prove to be as closely connected and as possible starting point for the solution of currently philosophical problems. On the one hand, Hegel recognizes: "The task of philosophy determines itself in that it makes the unity of thinking and being, which is its basic idea, to its own object and in that to understand it, i.e., to grasp the most internal of necessity, the notion." Thus, he sees the highest task of philosophy in that to supersede the abstract contradiction between thinking and being. Otherwise, he states: "The general is the value, the motion as a sensual is the exchange – the same generality is mediation as knowing motion – property, that means, an immediate having which is mediated by the recognized-being – or its being is, is the spiritual essence." Starting from these statements, the concept of the general (the concrete-general) as well as possibility and sense of the speculative thinking and of a post-Kantian ontology are considered.
450 Stefano Bordoni When Historiography met Epistemology. Duhem’s early philosophy of science in context 2013

Abstract

If the emergence of physics as a definite academic discipline was a heritage of the late nineteenth century, the emergence of a new theoretical practice, and the settlements of chairs of theoretical physics were the most interesting outcome of that process. The hallmark of the new theoretical practice was the awareness that the alliance between the mathematical language and the experimental practice celebrated by Galileo had to be updated. Besides “definite demonstrations” and “sound experiments” there was a third component, which could be labelled conceptual or theoretical: it dealt with principles, models, and patterns of explanation. That conceptual component, neither formal nor empirical, came to be looked upon as a fundamental component of scientific practice. It is worth remarking that, in that fin de siècle, science had finally managed to realize, at least in part, Bacon’s dream, and the myth of scientific progress emerged. In the debates on science which took place in France from the early 1870s to the early 1890s two main issues were at stake: determinism and reductionism. On the one hand we find some scientists, historians, and philosophers who relied on simplified epistemological and historiographical frameworks, and put forward an optimistic cult of human progress. On the other hand, a sophisticated point of view on science was put forward by scientists and philosophers who did not deny the effectiveness of scientific progress but were able to go beyond the simplified conception of scientific practice as an unproblematic alliance between mathematical and empirical procedures. In 1892 the young physicist Pierre Duhem published the first paper explicitly devoted to meta-theoretical issues or, to make use of a more recent expression, to philosophy of science. At that time he had already published a book on thermodynamic potentials and their applications to different fields of physical sciences, and a demanding paper, where he had put forward an original mathematical approach to thermodynamics on the track of Analytical Mechanics. Theoretical physics, the history of physics, and meta-theoretical remarks on science were mutually interconnected in Duhem’s actual praxis. The historical and epistemological remarks he began to publish systematically in the 1890s were subsequently collected in the book he published in 1906, La théorie physique, son objet, et sa structure. He represented the scientific enterprise as a three-stages task: from the knowledge of “specific facts”, the human mind was able to derive some “experimental laws” by induction, and then create a scientific theory. If the objects of experimental laws were facts, the objects of physical theories were experimental laws. In any case, a theory had nothing to do with the truth: it could not be qualified as true or false, but “suitable or unsuitable, good or bad”. The plurality of theoretical frameworks corresponding to a set of laws was consistent with this essential feature of theories. Moreover he put forward three fundamental theses on experimental physics: first, a physical experiment was not a purely empirical process; second, it could not be so powerful as to lead to the refutation of a single hypothesis; third, it was less reliable, even though more precise, than ordinary experience. After the Second World War some themes which had been put forward in the late XIX-century philosophy of science re-emerged in an unexpected way. In reality, Duhem’s books and papers had almost been forgotten, but a new interest in some of his meta-theoretical theses emerged in the context of a philosophical tradition that was deeply linked to logic. In 1951 Willard van Orman Quine sharply criticised both the dichotomy analytic/synthetic and reductionism, but he neither quoted from nor mentioned Duhem. In 1960 Adolf Grünbaum put forward a refutation of what he called “Duhemian argument”, but the core of Duhem’s meta-theoretical remarks got lost in a net of logical deductions which were extraneous to their context. Only from the 1970s onwards historians, historians of science, and philosophers of science began to be attracted by late XIX-century context in general, and Duhem’s philosophy of science in particular. Late XIX-century philosophy of science stemmed from a remarkable epistemological and historiographical awareness, and that awareness would deserve to be further explored.
449 Hubert Laitko Der Ambivalenzbegriff in Carl Friedrich von Weizsäckers Starnberger Institutskonzept 2013 Download PDF

Abstract

The strong impetus towards self-reflection of science during the 1960ies culminated around 1970 in the foundation of many relevant research institutions in different countries. Although included into that general trend, the MPI for the Exploration of Living Conditions in the Sci-entific-Technological World at Starnberg, established under the direction of Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker in 1970, pursued a unique idea, somewhat apart from the mainstream charac-terizing most institutes in the emerging field of science research (science of science, science studies, social studies of science, etc.). Meanwhile science research usually was focused on science as a sub-system of modern societies, for the Starnberg institute the typical subject was the “scientific-technological world” – mankind in global context increasingly based on sci-ence as a leading source of innovation and evolution. As a key concept for describing and analyzing the living conditions in the scientific-technological world, von Weizsäcker employs the idea of ambivalence. Obviously it means a proto-theoretical, fuzzy concept that cannot be introduced explicitly per definition; starting with an intuitive perception, “ambivalence” should gradually gain meaning by using it in dif-ferent argumentative contexts. Following a circular course (Kreisgang) – a procedure typical for von Weizsäcker’s style of thought – , he moves successively from explicit ambivalence in the application sphere of science through ambivalent features in scientists’ behaviour and ac-tion up to the general ambivalence of human existence prior to rationality and science, dis-closed at an anthropological level of deliberation situated between philosophy and common sense. He criticized profoundly the wide-spread conviction about the alleged neutrality of science becoming ambivalent only due to application under contrary goals; von Weizsäcker’s approach allowed to overcome the essentially inadequate and ethically questionable opinion mentioned above and to understand scientific cognition even at the level of “pure science” as an ambivalent enterprise. The given paper mainly discusses an essay by von Weizsäcker written in the starting year of the Starnberg institute (October 1970) under the title “Living conditions, Reflection on the interrelation of subjects”. The essay was a response to many conceptual proposals, presented by his (mostly young) scientific co-workers, and intended, at the same time, to inspire further discussion about the future profile of the institute. Von Weizsäcker’s remarkable effort to pay attention to the different ideas of his collaborators and to fit them into a more general network gave him reason to sketch a complex conceptual structure capable to integrate a broad range of suggestions; so the concept of ambivalence may be characterized as an indispensable mo-ment of central importance in the intellectual architecture of the Starnberg institute.
448 Jürgen Renn Einstein as a Missionary of Science 2013 Download PDF

Abstract

The paper reviews Einstein's engagement as a mediator and popularizer of science. It discusses the formative role of popular scientific literature for the young Einstein, showing that not only his broad scientific outlook but also his internationalist political views were shaped by these readings. Then, on the basis of recent detailed studies, Einstein’s travels and their impact on the dissemination of relativity theory are examined. These activities as well as Einstein’s own popular writings are interpreted in the context of his understanding of science as part of human culture.
447 Martin Thiering and Wulf Schiefenhövel Spatial Concepts in Non-Literate Societies: Language and Practice in Eipo and Dene Chipewyan (TOPOI – Towards a Historical Epistemology of Space) 2013 Download PDF

Abstract

This paper focuses on the linguistic representation of spatial concepts in two unrelated languages with a non-written tradition. It explores the degree to which environmental experience and spatial orientation is reflected in language, i.e., it is in line with anthropological linguistic approaches placing language in its social and cultural context, and its cultural practices. Spatial knowledge is not only encoded in concepts or categories, but is embodied in the lived histories of human beings, and their cultural and linguistic practices. The cultures under survey present an alpine region (Eipo, Papua Province, Indonesia) and vast prairies (Dene Chipewyan, Alberta, Canada). The mental and perceptual course maintaining in these cultures rely on cognitive maps, i.e., the orientation techniques are processes of inference within the structure of cognitive maps. We adopt cognitive maps as known from navigation techniques of dead reckoning of orientation. This kind of navigation is based on dynamic cognitive maps and mental triangulation so that the navigator has a spatial conception of their position at any time. It is argued here that this is of special importance also for orienting oneself in the alpine regions of Eipo or the vast prairies extensions of the Dene. Our question concerns the relationship between non-linguistic information and spatial language. The point of departure is that non-linguistic information has its impact upon spatial language and categorization, i.e., reference of space and its relation to semiotic systems. We present language data indicating the influence and constructive process of environmental landmarks and cultural heritage upon shaping of spatial categorization in the two languages.
446 Matthias Schemmel Elements of a Historical Epistemology of Space (TOPOI – Towards a Historical Epistemology of Space) 2013

Abstract

The essay presents an outline of a historical epistemology of space in the sense of a developmental theory of forms of spatial thinking. Starting with the natural conditions of spatial cognition through to concepts of space imposed by advanced disciplinary science, manifestations of spatial thinking in different cultures and historical epochs are sketched. The essay attempts to contribute to an assessment of the epistemic status of human spatial knowledge by highlighting genetic and structural relations between the different forms of knowledge. While the occurrence of each new form depends on specific socio-cultural conditions, its concrete realization does not solely depend on these conditions, but also on the cognitive structures it builds upon and on the further experience made possible by these conditions. Different forms of spatial knowledge do not replace each other in historical succession; they are simultaneously present within single societies and influence each other.
445 Horst Nowacki Archimedes and Ship Design 2013 Download PDF

Abstract

In his written work Archimedes’ primary contributions to ship design were the Law of Buoyancy and the Criterion of Stability of a floating object. These laws form the foundations of the floatability and upright stability of ships. How did he create and justify this fundamental knowledge? Might he have applied it to contemporary issues in the ship design of his era? How was this knowledge passed down through the centuries and when and how was it applied to practical ship design decisions? What is the role of Archimedes’ fundamental insights in today’s ship design? This article will address these issues in its three sections on Archimedes’ own contributions, the history of his heritage in the maritime field and the continuing significance of his physical laws in modern ship design. Motto on Archimedes: All praise him, few read him, all admire him, few understand him. (A. Tacquet, 1612-1660).
444 Sonja Brentjes and Jürgen Renn The Arabic Transmission of Knowledge on the Balance 2013

Abstract

In this paper we discuss the spread of knowledge on the balance as a mixture of practical and theoretical knowledge in different socio-cultural fields as well as their value systems among scholars of ninth-century Baghdad from a global perspective as an intersection of long-term and local history. We approach the subject in four major steps: 1. a discussion of our theoretical positions; 2. a survey of discussions among economic historians of Rome, Byzantium, the Sasanian Empire and the Umayyad as well as Abbasid caliphates for determining changes in those domains where balances and weights mattered most – trade, in particular long-distance trade, and governance; 3. a summary of major events in early Abbasid institutional and intellectual history; 4. an investigation of interests in balances and weights among physicians, mutakallimun and jurists. The second part of our paper is dedicated to a new, thorough analysis of three texts on the steelyard attributed to Thabit b. Qurra, commentaries and additions to one of them found in the manuscripts and an important Latin text (Liber de canonio) seen so far as a direct translation of an ancient Greek text. Applying a complex range of methods in order to understand the character, content and context of these texts, we achieved to establish several major new results that prove the eminently socio-cultural nature of Thabit’s new hybrid Greco-Arabic texts, suggest a new temporal sequence of the studied texts and their mutual relationships, establish the Liber de canonio as most likely a grecizising translation of an Arabic ancestor and demonstrate the importance of intellectual and patronage networks for the establishment of the new science of weights.
443 Stefano Bordoni Looking for a Rational Thermodynamics in the late XIX century 2013 Download PDF

Abstract

From Rudolf Clausius’ classical version of Thermodynamics two different traditions of research really emerged. If James C. Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann pursued the integration of thermodynamics with the kinetic theory of gases, others relied on a macroscopic and more abstract approach, which set aside specific mechanical models. Starting from 1869, the French engineer François Massieu was able to demonstrate that thermodynamics could be based on two “characteristic functions” or potentials. Josiah W. Gibbs and Hermann von Helmholtz exploited the structural analogy between Mechanics and Thermodynamics: from a mathematical point of view, Helmholtz’s “free energy” was nothing else but Gibb’s first potential. In the meantime, in 1880, the young German physicist Max Planck aimed at filling the gap between thermodynamics and the theory of elasticity. Five years later Arthur von Oettingen put forward a formal theory, where mechanical work and fluxes of heat represented the starting point of a dual mathematical structure. In 1891 Pierre Duhem generalized the concept of “virtual work” under the action of “external actions” by taking into account both mechanical and thermal actions. Between 1892 and 1894 his design of a generalized Mechanics based on thermodynamics was further developed: ordinary mechanics was looked upon as a specific instance of a more general science. KEY WORDS: Mechanics, Thermodynamics, Potentials, Work, Heat, Energy, Lagrange’s equations, General equations.
442 William G. Boltz and Matthias Schemmel The Language of ‘Knowledge’ and ‘Space’ in the Later Mohist Canon (TOPOI – Towards a Historical Epistemology of Space) 2013 Download PDF

Abstract

The paper presents translations and interpretations of numerous sections from the so-called 'Later Mohist Canon' that document reflective thinking on epistemic and spatial concepts. The 'Later Mohist Canon' originated in late Warring States period China (ca. 300 BCE) and, among the corpus of extant, transmitted ancient Chinese texts, is highly atypical in several respects concerning both contents and style. Yet, it is shown that there are many passages that can be clearly related to other, more traditional, contemporaneous sources. The interpretations given aim at the reconstruction of historical forms of thinking and are informed by pertinent linguistic and textual analysis. Furthermore, general issues of interpretation, such as the problem of anachronistic understanding, are discussed by way of example.
441 Horst Kant und Jürgen Renn Eine utopische Episode – Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker in den Netzwerken der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft 2013 Download PDF

Abstract

Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker was a key figure in the history of the Max Planck Society (MPS). This essay contextualises his work with the development of the MPS, highlighting the institutional and personal networks upon which it was based. Some of the stations addressed in the following are his role in the German Uranium Project, in preparing the Mainau Declaration, the Göttingen Manifesto, and the Memorandum of Tübingen as well as his involvement in the foundation of the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for Human Development and his own MPI for the Research of Living Conditions in the Modern World located in Starnberg. The relationship between Weizsäcker and Hellmut Becker, long-time friend and founding director of the MPI for Human Development, will be of particular interest. Another issue broached here is the connection between natural science and the humanities in the work of Weizsäcker, and subsequently the relation between these two science cultures in the Max Planck Society. Finally, we look at the challenges Weizsäcker ’s work could present to the Max Planck Society today.
440 Pietro Daniel Omodeo und Jürgen Renn Das Prinzip Kontingenz in der Naturwissenschaft der Renaissance 2013 Download PDF
439 Irina Tupikova & Klaus Geus The Circumference of the Earth and Ptolemy’s World Map 2013 Download PDF

Abstract

The interlink between the determination of the circumference of the Earth and the geographical mapping performed by Ptolemy in his Geography (c. 150 AD) is discussed. As Ptolemy himself stated, he used the value of 180,000 stades for the circumference of the Earth which is in stark contrast to the famous result of Eratosthenes, i.e. 252,000 stades. Many scholars see these different values as a result of the diverse definitions of a stade used by both ancient authors. Such a view cannot, nevertheless, explain the excessive distortion of Ptolemy's world map along the east-west direction. We have treated the problem with the methods of spherical trigonometry and have shown that many features of Ptolemy's map can be easily explained and corrected under the presupposition that the length of the stade used by Ptolemy coincides with that of Eratosthenes. The latitudinal distortion in Ptolemaic map is caused by his underestimating of the size of the Earth in combination with his efforts to keep the known latitudes of the localities. Another mathematical conse-quence is a significant longitudinal displacement of the localities lying approximately on the same meridian (so-called antikemenoi poleis), as in the case Carthage in relation to Rome. It is shown that a simple transformation of the Ptolemaic coordinates to the circumference of the Earth measured by Eratosthenes drastically improves the positions of the locations given in Ptolemy's catalo-gue. The comparison of the recalculated positions of the identified localities with their actual positions confirmed a very high precisi-on of Eratosthenes' result for the circumference of the Earth.
438 Pietro Daniel Omodeo L’iter europeo del matematico e medico scozzese Duncan Liddel 2013 Download PDF

Abstract

This study is a reconstruction of the life and work of the Scottish mathematician and physician Duncan Liddel (Aberdeen, 1561–1613). It deals with Liddel’s curriculum studiorum and academic career in northern protestant Germany (at the universities of Frankfurt/Oder, Rostock and Helmstedt); his participation in the debates of important intellectual circles such as that of Dudith-Sbardellati and Crato von Crafftheim in Wrocław and Tycho’s “astronomical Academy” on Hven, in Denmark; and Liddel’s eventual return to Aberdeen, where he funded a chair of mathematics and a scholarship for several students at the Marischal College and endowed the university with his scientific and humanistic library. This bio-bibliographical study, based on archival and library investigations, offers an insight into the institutions and networks that permitted a wide European circulation of scholars and ideas, as well as transfer processes of knowledge and scientific practices, during the Renaissance.
437 Jürgen Renn Schrödinger and the Genesis of Wave Mechanics 2013 Download PDF

Abstract

In the context of a new analysis of the notebooks of Erwin Schrödinger, the paper deals with the question of the relation between Schrödinger's creation of wave mechanics and the contemporary efforts by Werner Heisenberg and his colleagues to establish a new quantum mechanics. How can one explain, from a broader historical and epistemological perspective, the astonishing simultaneity and complementarity of these discoveries? The paper argues that neither the physical problems with which both approaches deal nor what ultimately turned out to be their common mathematical ground are sufficient to explain their complementarity. Instead, their closeness is explained by analyzing their common roots in classical mechanics and its transformation in the light of the most fundamental new quantum law, the relation between energy and frequency found by Planck. It is shown, in particular, that for both approaches a bridge between quantum and classical aspects involving this relation was crucial. In the case of Heisenberg, this bridge was given by Bohr’s correspondence principle. In the case of Schrödinger it was constituted by Hamilton’s optical-mechanical analogy.
436 Jens Høyrup A hypothetical history of Old Babylonian mathematics: places, passages, stages, development 2012 Download PDF
435 Jens Høyrup Sanskrit-Prakrit interaction in elementary mathematics as reflected in Arabic and Italian formulations of the rule of three – and something more on the rule elsewhere 2012 Download PDF
434 Conference Epistemology and History. From Bachelard and Canguilhem to Today’s History of Science 2012 Download PDF
433 Lorraine Daston & Jürgen Renn (Hrsg.) Festkolloquium für Hans-Jörg Rheinberger. Beiträge zum Symposium am 24. 1. 2011 im Max-Planck-Institut für Wissenschaftsgeschichte 2012 Download PDF

Abstract

In this preprint, a selection of contributions to the symposium in honor of Hans-Jörg Rheinberger’s 65th birthday is published. It took place on January 24, 2011 at the Max-Planck-Institute for the History of Science and assembled friends, students and colleagues of Hans-Jörg Rheinberger.
432 Mikuláš Teich The Scientific Revolution Revisited 2012 Download PDF
431 Klaus Gottstein The Amaldi Conferences. Their Past and Their Potential Future 2012 Download PDF

Abstract

In 1986 the President of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences extended invitations to the Academies of Sciences of Western Europe to create a Committee of European scientists who would join the existing U.S. Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) and a comparable group of senior scientists of the Soviet Academy in their informal discussions of issues of arms control and nuclear disarmament. The Italian Academy was the first to respond positively, and in 1988 a conference on these issues took place in Rome. Others followed in different countries, their numbers rising to 18 by 2010. After the death in 1989 of Edoardo Amaldi. President of the Lincei, these conferences were named “International Amaldi Conferences of National Academies of Sciences on Scientific Problems of Global Security”. At later conferences scientists from Eastern Europe, Asia and the Third World were also invited. Most European academies had been reluctant to take up studies in subjects of hot political significance. But many encouraged members to take part as individuals. Meanwhile, the political landscape has changed dramatically. It may be justified to consider the consequences for the Amaldi Conferences. In this paper the history of the founding and of the development of the Amaldi Conferences is described with special reference to the following aspects: • The Origin • The Vision of a European CISAC • Widening the Scope of the Amaldi Conferences? • Are the Amaldi Conferences still serving their initial purpose? • Are there new chances today for a European CISAC?
430 Mark Geller & Klaus Geus (eds.) Productive Errors: Scientific Concepts in Antiquity (TOPOI – Dahlem Seminar for the History of Ancient Sciences) 2012 Download PDF
429 Pietro Daniel Omodeo Copernicus in the Cultural Debates of the Renaissance: Reception, Legacy, Transformation [Part I & II] 2012

Abstract

This extensive study offers a general overview of the reception of Copernicus’s astronomical and cosmological proposal from the years immediately preceding the publication of his major work, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (Nuremberg, 1543), to the Catholic prohibition of the heliocentric system in 1616. It is a reconstruction of the Renaissance cultural debates that were either provoked by the impact of Copernicus’s work or that conversely reshaped and transformed the meaning of Copernicus’s achievements. Certain aspects of this reception and transformation are treated with particular attention: epistemology, cosmology, space conceptions, natural philosophy, the incipient classical physics, theology and anthropology. The treatment of the different authors, issues and debates is based on an extensive and up-to-date bibliography concerning both the primary sources and the secondary literature.
428 Stefano Bordoni Widening the Scope of Analytical Mechanics. Duhem’s third pathway to Thermodynamics 2012 Download PDF
427 Renate Wahsner Kann eine moderne Naturphilosophie auf Hegelsche Prinzipien gegründet werden? Spekulatives und naturwissenschaftliches Denken 2012

Abstract

It is shown that Hegel's conception, according to which the highest task of philosophy consists in overcoming (aufheben) the opposition of thinking and being, did not lose its meaning. However, it is more difficult to reach this aim than Hegel thought. First of all, this requires a more detailed analysis of the epistemological status of natural science as a necessary preliminary stage of the Absolute, that means, to give the speculative thinking a solid basis. Furthermore, it is concluded that it would be necessary, in contradiction to Hegel, to conceive development such that it implies the production of new possibilities. By this, a concept of system could be introduced that realized Hegel's ambition. The creation of the system's principles (of the system of philosophy as such) cannot be considered as finished; the presupposed logic cannot be regarded as completed. The system must be founded such that it does not only admit but even requires the new-creation of principles. Each further development or negation of the system then would be justification. In this sense, the eternal life of spirit postulated by Hegel means endlessly to create and overcome (aufheben) the opposition of thinking and being.
426 Klaus Geus, Martin Thiering (eds.) Common Sense Geography and Mental Modelling 2012 Download PDF
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425 Annette Vogt Die Berliner Humboldt–Universität von 1945/1946 bis 1960/1961 2012
424 Alfred Gierer Mit Schiller gegen den „Egoismus der Vernunft“. Zeitübergreifende Gedanken zur Natur des Menschen 2012 Download PDF
423 Han F. Vermeulen Linguistik und Völkerkunde – der Beitrag der historisch-vergleichenden Linguistik von G.W. Leibniz zur Entstehung der Völkerkunde im 18. Jahrhundert [Leicht erweiterte Fassung des Working Papers No. 133 aus dem MPI for Social Anthropology] 2012 Download PDF
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422 Pietro Daniel Omodeo, Irina Tupikova Aristotle and Ptolemy on Geocentrism: Diverging Argumentative Strategies and Epistemologies (TOPOI – Towards a Historical Epistemology of Space) 2012
421 Frank W. Stahnisch The emergence of Nervennahrung: Nerves, mind and metabolism in the long eighteenth century 2011
420 Mathias Grote & Max Stadler (eds.) Membranes Surfaces Boundaries. Interstices in the History of Science, Technology and Culture 2011
419 Albert Presas i Puig (ed.) A Comparative Study of European Nuclear Energy Programs 2011
418 Peter Schöttler & Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (éds.) Marc Bloch et les crises du savoir 2011 Download PDF
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417 Pietro Daniel Omodeo Sixteenth Century Professors of Mathematics at the German University of Helmstedt. A Case Study on Renaissance Scholarly Work and Networks 2011 Download PDF
416 André L. Blum, John Michael Krois und Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (Hrsg.) Verkörperungen 2011
415 Ilana Löwy (ed.) Microscope Slides – Reassessing a Neglected Historical Ressource 2011
414 Viktor J. Frenkel Professor Friedrich Houtermans – Arbeit, Leben, Schicksal. Biographie eines Physikers des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. Herausgegeben und ergänzt von Dieter Hoffmann, unter Mitwirkung von Mary Beer 2011 Download PDF
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413 Mirjam Brusius From photographic science to scientific photography: Photographic experiments at the British Museum around 1850 2011
412 Renate Wahsner & Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski Erkenntnis statt Erbauung: Hegel und das naturwissenschaftliche Denken der Moderne 2011
411 Henning Schmidgen & Urs Schoepflin (eds.) Hans-Jörg Rheinberger : a Bibliography 2011 Download PDF
410 Florentina Badalanova Geller 2 (Slavonic Apocalypse of) Enoch: Text and Context 2010 Download PDF
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409 Werner Kogge Schrift und das Rätsel des Lebendigen. Die Entstehung des Begriffssystems der Molekularbiologie zwischen 1880 und 1950 2010 Download PDF
408 Tobias Breidenmoser, Fynn Ole Engler, Günther Jirikowski, Michael Pohl and Dieter G. Weiss Transformation of Scientific Knowledge in Biology: Changes in our Understanding of the Living Cell through Microscopic Imaging 2010 Download PDF
407 Wolfgang Lefèvre Picturing the World of Mining in the Renaissance. The Schwazer Bergbuch (1556) 2010 Download PDF
406 Karin Krauthausen Paul Valéry and Geometry: Instrument, Writing Model, Practice 2010
405 Christoph Hoffmann and Alexandre Métraux (eds.) Working with Instruments – Three Papers of Ernst Mach and Ludwig Mach 2010
404 Francesca Bordogna Asceticism and Truth: The Case of ‘Magic Pragmatism’ 2010
403 Frank W. Stahnisch German-Speaking Émigré Neuroscientists in North America after 1933: Critical Reflections on Emigration-Induced Scientific Change 2010
402 Matthias Schemmel Medieval Representations of Change and Their Early Modern Application (TOPOI – Towards a Historical Epistemology of Space) 2010 Download PDF
401 M. J. Geller Look to the Stars: Babylonian medicine, magic, astrology and melothesia 2010 Download PDF
400 Fynn Ole Engler und Jürgen Renn Wissenschaftliche Philosophie, moderne Wissenschaft und historische Epistemologie. Albert Einstein, Ludwik Fleck und Moritz Schlick im Ringen um die wissenschaftliche Rationalität 2010 Download PDF

Abstract

The paper reviews the historical origins of the current split between different forms of reflection on science, in particular between normative philosophical positions and descriptive historical positions that consider science as embedded in society and culture. It analyzes the historical and intellectual contexts in which this split emerged in the early part of the twentieth century, taking the philosopher Moritz Schlick and the scientist and historian Ludwik Fleck as main reference points. The history of Einstein’s general theory of relativity and its new understanding of space and time is analyzed in relation to these positions. The paper follows the split between the different forms of reflection through further developments in the philosophy and history of science, discussing the views of Otto Neurath, Rudolf Carnap, Martin Heidegger, and Thomas Kuhn, among others. It suggests that current debates on historical epistemology could benefit from taking the split of rationality—inherited from the catastrophic twentieth century—as a challenge to be addressed by an integrative historical theory of knowledge development.
399 Susanne Lehmann-Brauns, Christian Sichau, Helmuth Trischler (eds.) The Exhibition as Product and Generator of Scholarship 2010 Download PDF
398 Angela Matyssek Überleben und Restaurierung. Barnett Newmans Who’s afraid of Red, Yellow, and Blue III und Cathedra 2010
397 Frank W. Stahnisch «Der Rosenthal’sche Versuch» oder: Über den Ort produktiver Forschung – Zur Exkursion des physiologischen Experimentallabors von Isidor Rosenthal (1836–1915) von der Stadt aufs Land 2010
396 Fynn Ole Engler, Björn Henning und Karsten Böger Transformationen der wissenschaftlichen Philosophie und ihre integrative Kraft – Wolfgang Köhler, Otto Neurath und Moritz Schlick 2010 Download PDF
395 Tamás Demeter Hume's Experimental Method 2010
394 Volkmar Schüller Some Remarks on Prop. VIII Probl. II of Newton’s Opticks Book I Part I 2010 Download PDF
393 Luis Campos and Alexander von Schwerin (eds.) Making Mutations: Objects, Practices, Contexts 2010 Download PDF
392 Ana Barahona, Edna Suarez-Díaz, and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (eds.) Hereditary Hourglass. Genetics and Epigenetics, 1868-2000 2010 Download PDF
391 Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski & Renate Wahsner Die Fassung der Welt unter der Form des Objekts und der philosophische Begriff der Objektivität 2010
390 Jens Høyrup Hesitating progress – the slow development toward algebraic symbolization in abbacus- and related manuscripts, c.1300 to c.1550 2009 Download PDF
389 Horst Nowacki The Heritage of Archimedes in Ship Hydrostatics: 2000 Years from Theories to Applications 2009
388 Alfred Gierer Wissenschaft, Religion und die deutungsoffenen Grundfragen der Biologie 2009 Download PDF
387 Christoph Hoffmann und Lidia Westermann Gottfried Benns Literaturreferate in der Berliner Klinischen Wochenschrift. Faksimileabdruck und Einführung 2009
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386 Thomas Sturm & Uljana Feest (eds.) What (Good) is Historical Epistemology? 2009
385 Arne Schirrmacher (ed.) Communicating Science in 20th Century Europe. A Survey on Research and Comparative Perspectives 2009 Download PDF
384 Zur Shalev Christian Pilgrimage and Ritual Measurement in Jerusalem 2009 Download PDF
383 Arie Krampf Translation of central banking to developing countries in the postwar period: The Case of the Bank of Israel 2009
382 Jean-Paul Gaudillière, Daniel J. Kevles, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger (eds.) Living Properties: Making Knowledge and Controlling Ownership in the History of Biology 2009
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381 Donald Salisbury Translation and Commentary of Leon Rosenfeld’s “Zur Quantelung der Wellenfelder”, Annalen der Physik 397,113 (1930) 2009 Download PDF
380 Sabine Brauckmann, Christina Brandt, Denis Thieffry, Gerd B. Müller (eds.) Graphing Genes, Cells, and Embryos. Cultures of Seeing 3D and Beyond 2009
379 Tania Munz “My Goose Child Martina”. The Multiple Uses of Geese in Konrad Lorenz’s Animal Behavior Studies, 1935–1988 2009
378 José M. Pacheco The mathematician Norberto Cuesta Dutarire covered from oblivion 2009 Download PDF
377 Fabian Krämer The Persistent Image of an Unusual Centaur. A Biography of Aldrovandi’s Two-Legged Centaur Woodcut 2009
376 Anna Holterhoff Naturwissenschaft versus Religion? Zum Verhältnis von Theologie und Kosmologie im 18. Jahrhundert (TOPOI – Towards a Historical Epistemology of Space) 2009 Download PDF
375 Ludmila Hyman Vygotsky on Scientific Observation 2009 Download PDF
374 Uljana Feest, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Günter Abel (eds.) Epistemic Objects 2009
373 Martin Thiering Linguistic Categorization of Topological Spatial Relations (TOPOI – Towards a Historical Epistemology of Space) 2009 Download PDF
372 Christof Windgätter Ansichtssachen. Zur Typographie- und Farbpolitik des Internationalen Psychoanalytischen Verlages (1919–1938) 2009
371 Larrie D. Ferreiro The Aristotelian Heritage in Early Naval Architecture, from the Venetian Arsenal to the French Navy, 1500–1700 2009 Download PDF
370 Shaul Katzir From academic physics to invention and industry: the course of Hermann Aron’s (1845–1913) career 2009 Download PDF
369 Dieter Hoffmann, Hole Rößler, Gerald Reuther „Lachkabinett“ und „großes Fest“ der Physiker. Walter Grotrians „physikalischer Einakter“ zu Max Plancks 80. Geburtstag. 2009 Download PDF
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368 Renate Wahsner & Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski Naturwissenschaft und Weltbild 2009
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367 Hubert Laitko Strategen, Organisatoren, Kritiker, Dissidenten – Verhaltensmuster prominenter Naturwissenschaftler der DDR in den 50er und 60er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts 2009 Download PDF
366 Julia Kursell (Hrsg.) Physiologie des Klaviers. Vorträge und Konzerte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte der Musik 2009 Download PDF
365 Viola van Beek „Man lasse doch diese Dinge selber einmal sprechen“ – Experimentierkästen, Experimental-anleitungen und Erzählungen um 1900 2009
364 Angelo Baracca, Leopoldo Nuti, Jürgen Renn, Reiner Braun, Matteo Gerlini, Marilena Gala, and Albert Presas i Puig (eds.) Nuclear Proliferation: History and Present Problems 2009
363 Jean Paul Gaudillière and Volker Hess (eds.) Ways of Regulating: Therapeutic Agents between Plants, Shops and Consulting Rooms 2008
362 Christof Windgätter Zu den Akten – Verlags- und Wissenschaftsstrategien der Wiener Psychoanalyse (1919–1938) 2008
361 Albert Presas i Puig (ed.) Who is Making Science? Scientists as Makers of Technical-Scientific Structures and Administrators of Science Policy 2008
360 Dieter Fick & Horst Kant Walther Bothe’s contributions to the particle-wave dualism of light 2008
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359 Jens Høyrup Baroque Mind-set and New Science. A Dialectic of Seventeenth-Century High Culture 2008 Download PDF
358 Renate Wahsner & Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski Die Naturwissenschaft und der philosophische Begriff des Geistes 2008
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357 Florentina Badalanova Geller Qur’an in vernacular. Folk Islam in the Balkans 2008 Download PDF
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356 Viola Balz, Alexander v. Schwerin, Heiko Stoff, Bettina Wahrig (eds.) Precarious Matters / Prekäre Stoffe. The History of Dangerous and Endangered Substances in the 19th and 20th Centuries 2008 Download PDF
355 Albert Presas i Puig The Contribution of the History of Science and Social Studies to the Understanding of Scientific Dynamics: the Case of the Spanish Nuclear Energy Program 2008
354 Albert Presas i Puig Reflections on a peripheral Paperclip Project: A technological innovation system in Spain based on the transfer of German technology 2008
353 José Miguel Pacheco Castelao, F. Javier Pérez-Fernández, Carlos O. Suárez Alemán Infinitesimals in Spain: Antonio Portuondo’s Ensayo sobre el Infinito 2008 Download PDF
352 José Miguel Pacheco Castelao, F. Javier Pérez-Fernández, Carlos O. Suárez Alemán Following the steps of Spanish Mathematical Analysis: From Cauchy to Weierstrass between 1880 and 1914 2008 Download PDF
351 José M. Pacheco Does more abstraction imply better understanding? (“Apuntes de Mecánica Social”, by Antonio Portuondo) 2008 Download PDF
350 Christian Joas, Christoph Lehner, and Jürgen Renn (eds.) HQ-1: Conference on the History of Quantum Physics (Vols. I & II) 2008 Download PDF
349 Jens Høyrup Über den italienischen Hintergrund der Rechenmeister-Mathematik 2008 Download PDF
348 Luigi Guerrini The ‘Accademia dei Lincei’ and the New World. 2008 Download PDF
347 Sophia Vackimes The Genetically Engineered Body: A Cinematic Context 2008 Download PDF
346 Julia Kursell (ed.) Sounds of Science – Schall im Labor (1800–1930) 2008 Download PDF
345 Omar W. Nasim Observations, Descriptions and Drawings of Nebulae: A Sketch. 2008
344 Karine Chemla Canon and commentary in ancient China: An outlook based on mathematical sources 2008 Download PDF
343 Conference A Cultural History of Heredity IV: Heredity in the Century of the Gene 2008 Download PDF
342 Gerhard Herrgott Wanderer-Fantasien. Franz Liszt und die Figuren des Begehrens 2008 Download PDF
341 Sílvio R. Dahmen Boltzmann and the art of flying 2008 Download PDF
340 Uljana Feest, Giora Hon, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Jutta Schickore, Friedrich Steinle (eds.) Generating Experimental Knowledge 2008
339 Sophia Vackimes & Konstanze Weltersbach (eds.) Wandering Seminar on Scientific Objects 2007 Download PDF
338 Horst Nowacki and Wolfgang Lefèvre (eds.) Creating Shapes in Civil and Naval Architecture. A Cross-Disciplinary Comparison. Vols. I & II 2007
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337 Thomas Sturm Why Did Kant Reject Physiological Explanations in His Anthropology? 2007
336 Albert Presas i Puig The Dream of a Reactor: The DON Project. Methodological Reflections on a Technology Development Project in Franco’s Spain 2007
335 Albert Presas i Puig The Scientific and Technological Relations between Spain and Germany during the first Franco period 2007
334 Christof Windgätter ZeitSchriften. Eine Revolution der Experimentalkultur im 19. Jahrhundert 2007
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333 Wolfgang Lefèvre (ed.) Inside the Camera Obscura – Optics and Art under the Spell of the Projected Image 2007 Download PDF
332 Götz Neuneck und Michael Schaaf (Hrsg.) Zur Geschichte der Pugwash-Bewegung in Deutschland. Symposium der deutschen Pugwash-Gruppe im Harnack-Haus Berlin, 24. Februar 2006 2007 Download PDF
331 Fynn Ole Engler Wissenschaftliche Philosophie und moderne Physik I. Hans Reichenbach und Moritz Schlick über Naturgesetzlichkeit, Kausalität und Wahrscheinlichkeit im Zusammenhang mit der Relativitäts- und der Quantentheorie 2007 Download PDF
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330 Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski & Renate Wahsner Erkenntniskritische Betrachtungen zur Physik 2007
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329 Pascual Jordan (1902–1980). Mainzer Symposium zum 100. Geburtstag 2007 Download PDF
328 Daniela Monaldi The Indirect Observation of the Decay of Mesotrons. Italian Experiments on Cosmic Radiation, 1937–1943 2007
327 István M. Bodnár Oenopides of Chius: A survey of the modern literature with a collection of the ancient testimonia 2007 Download PDF
326 Horst Nowacki Leonhard Euler and the Theory of Ships 2007 Download PDF
325 Renate Tobies Techno- und Wirtschaftsmathematik in der Glühlampen- und Elektronenröhrenforschung bei Osram und Telefunken 2007
324 Uljana Feest (ed.) Historical Perspectives on Erklären and Verstehen: An Interdisciplinary Workshop 2007
323 Sandra Pravica »Materialität« in der Naturwissenschaftsforschung. Eine bibliographische Übersicht 2007
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322 Katrin Solhdju (ed.) Introspective Self-Rapports. Shaping Ethical and Aesthetic Concepts 1850–2006 2006
321 Britta Lange Ein Archiv von Stimmen. Kriegsgefangene unter ethnografischer Beobachtung 2006
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320 Jürgen Renn, Peter Damerow, Malcolm D. Hyman, Matteo Valleriani Weight, Motion and Force: Conceptual Structural Changes in Ancient Knowledge as a Result of its Transmission 2006 Download PDF
319 Rhodri Lewis From Athens to Elsinore: The Early Modern Art of Memory, Reconsidered 2006
318 Conference The Shape of Experiment 2006 Download PDF
317 Gideon Freudenthal Definition and Construction. Salomon Maimon’s Philosophy of Geometry 2006
316 Ian Hacking Another New World Is Being Constructed Right Now: The Ultracold 2006
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315 Günter Dörfel Julius Edgar Lilienfeld und William David Coolidge – ihre Röntgenröhren und ihre Konflikte 2006 Download PDF
314 Dieter Hoffmann Peter Debye (1884–1966). Ein Dossier 2006 Download PDF
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313 Zhang Baichun and Jürgen Renn (eds.) Transformation and Transmission: Chinese Mechanical Knowledge and the Jesuit Intervention 2006 Download PDF
312 Maria E. Kronfeldner Is cultural evolution Lamarckian? 2006
311 Renate Wahsner “Der Mensch kann tun, was er will, aber er kann nicht wollen, was er will” – eine mit Hegels Konzept vereinbare Auffassung? 2006
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310 Workshop History and Epistemology of Molecular Biology and Beyond: Problems and Perspectives 2006
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309 Fynn Ole Engler Moritz Schlick und Albert Einstein 2006 Download PDF
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308 Horst Nowacki Developments in Fluid Mechanics Theory and Ship Design before Trafalgar 2006 Download PDF
307 Erna Fiorentini Camera Obscura vs. Camera Lucida – Distinguishing Early Nineteenth Century Modes of Seeing 2006 Download PDF
306 Uljana Feest Science and Experience/Science of Experience: Gestalt Psychology and the Anti-Metaphysical Project of the Aufbau 2006
305 Erna Fiorentini Scambio di Vedute. Lo sguardo sulla natura e la camera lucida tra i paesaggisti internazionali a Roma intorno al 1820 2006 Download PDF
304 Erna Fiorentini (ed.) The Osmotic Dynamics of Romanticism. Observing Nature – Representing Experience 1800–1850 2005
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303 Christian Forstner Dialectical Materialism and the Construction of a New Quantum Theory: David Joseph Bohm, 1917–1992 2005 Download PDF
302 Angelo Baracca (ed.) History of the Development of Physics in Cuba 2005 Download PDF
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301 Günter Dörfel und Dieter Hoffmann Von Albert Einstein bis Norbert Wiener – frühe Ansichten und späte Einsichten zum Phänomen des elektronischen Rauschens 2005 Download PDF
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300 Albert Presas i Puig Spain in 1952 as seen by a German warship builder: Modernisation programmes of the submarine fleet under Franco’s first regime and German specialists 2005
299 Albert Presas i Puig “Germania docet”: On a lecture trip to Spain. The scientific relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente boycott (1919–1926) 2005
298 Albert Presas i Puig Continuities in Radical Changes: The Technological Relationships between Germany and Spain in the 20th Century 2005
297 Rhodri Lewis Of Origenian Platonisme: Joseph Glanvill on the Pre-Existence of Souls 2005
296 Arne Schirrmacher Dreier Männer Arbeit in der frühen Bundesrepublik. Max Born, Werner Heisenberg und Pascual Jordan als politische Grenzgänger 2005 Download PDF
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295 Erna Fiorentini Instrument des Urteils. Zeichnen mit der Camera Lucida als Komposit 2005 Download PDF
294 Conference A Cultural History of Heredity III: 19th and Early 20th Centuries 2005 Download PDF
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293 Elke Flatau Albert Einstein als wissenschaftlicher Autor 2005 Download PDF
292 Massimiliano Badino The Foundational Role of Ergodic Theory 2005 Download PDF
291 Barbara Wittmann Zeichnen, im Dunkeln. Psychophysiologie einer Kulturtechnik um 1900 2005 Download PDF
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290 Scott Mandelbrote ‘Converse with Books’: Scientific and Medical Libraries in the British Isles, c. 1640–c. 1750 2005
289 István M. Bodnár Aristotle’s rewinding spheres: Three options and their difficulties 2005 Download PDF
288 Cornelius Borck, Volker Hess und Henning Schmidgen Erkenntnis des Lebenden. Eine Skizze zu Georges Canguilhem (1904–1995) 2005 Download PDF
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287 Joseph Ziegler On the Use of the “New Sciences” (Medicine, Alchemy, Astrology, and Physiognomy) for Religious Purposes c. 1300 2005
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286 Dieter B. Herrmann Über Albert Einsteins politische Ansichten. Ein Briefwechsel zwischen Dieter B. Herrmann und Ernst G. Straus aus den Jahren 1960 – 1962 2005
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285 Alfred Gierer Willensfreiheit aus neurowissenschaftlicher und theologiegeschichtlicher Perspektive – Ein erkenntniskritischer Vergleich 2005 Download PDF
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284 Sicco Lehmann-Brauns Kritische Gelehrsamkeit und mystische Gelehrsamkeitskritik – C. A. Heumann und G. Arnold im Spannungsfeld von ‚Knowledge and Belief‘ 2004
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283 John Stachel Fresnel’s (Dragging) Coefficient as a Challenge to 19th Century Optics of Moving Bodies 2004
282 Don Handelman Night 2004
281 Sachiko Kusukawa From Counterfeit to Canon: Picturing the human body, especially by Andreas Vesalius 2004
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280 Philipp Felsch Müde Augen. Physiologische Alpenreisen im fin de siècle 2004
279 Bettina Gockel und Michael Hagner [Hrsg.] Die Wissenschaft vom Künstler. Körper, Geist und Lebensgeschichte des Künstlers als Objekte der Wissenschaften, 1880 – 1930 2004
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278 Caroline Welsh und Christoph Hoffmann [Hrsg.] „in jedem Augenblick auf das Äußerste gefaßt“. Aus dem Labor philologischer Neugierde 2004
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277 Michel Janssen and Matthew Mecklenburg Electromagnetic Models of the Electron and the Transition from Classical to Relativistic Mechanics 2004 Download PDF
276 Staffan Müller-Wille and Hans-Jörg Rheinberger Heredity – The Production of an Epistemic Space 2004 Download PDF
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275 Tibor Frank Ever Ready to Go: The Multiple Exiles of Leo Szilard [Part I - III] 2004
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274 Tibor Frank George Pólya and the Heuristic Tradition 2004
273 Ursula Klein Experiments at the Intersection of Experimental History, Technological Inquiry, and Conceptually Driven Analysis 2004
272 Bernhard Kleeberg, Wolfgang Lefèvre, Julia Voss Zum Darwinismusstreit 2004
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271 Jürgen Renn, Matthias Schemmel, and Milena Wazeck In the Shadow of the Relativity Revolution 2004 Download PDF
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270 Renate Wahsner Der Widerstreit von Mechanismus und Organismus. Ein Widerstreit zweier Denkprinzipien der neuzeitlichen Naturwissenschaft? 2004
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269 Sonja Brentjes Peiresc's interests in the Middle East and Northern Africa in respect to geography and cartography 2004
268 Mechthild Fend Bodily and Pictorial Surfaces. The Representation of Skin in late 18th and 19th Century France 2004
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267 Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski, Hans-Jürgen Treder and Renate Wahsner Aspects of the History of Gravitational Theories 2004
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266 Marie-Noëlle Bourguet Écriture du voyage et construction savante du monde. Le carnet d’Italie d’Alexander von Humboldt 2004 Download PDF
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265 Michel Janssen and John Stachel The Optics and Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies 2004 Download PDF
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264 Michel Janssen and Jürgen Renn Untying the Knot: How Einstein Found His Way Back to Field Equations Discarded in the Zurich Notebook 2004 Download PDF
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263 Albert Presas i Puig Science and Technology on the Periphery. The Spanish Reception of Nuclear Energy and the German Advice 2004
262 Albert Presas i Puig Numbers, Proportions, Harmonies, and Practical Geometry in Ancient Art 2004
261 Giuseppe Castagnetti and Hubert Goenner Einstein and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics (1917–1922): Institutional Aims and Scientific Results 2004
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260 Ursula Klein Atomism in the first half of the XIXth century 2004
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259 M. J. Geller Akkadian Healing Therapies in the Babylonian Talmud 2004 Download PDF
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258 Sergio Nobre Christian Wolffs Beitrag zur Popularisierung der Mathematik in Deutschland, europäischen und außereuropäischen Ländern 2004
257 Aimé Sègla Instruments et Objets de l’Evolution du Développement du Concept de Nombre en Yoruba : Relecture Epistémologique 2004
256 Aimé Sègla De la Cosmologie à une Théorie du Nombre : Le corpus Ifa revisité comme un questionnement de la mathématique orale 2004
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255 Aimé Sègla et Adékin Boko De la Cosmologie à la Rationalisation de la vie sociale: Ces mots Idaacha qui parlent ou la mémoire d’un type de calendrier Yoruba ancien [1] 2004
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254 Alfred Gierer Human Brain Evolution, Theories of Innovation, and Lessons from the History of Technology 2004 Download PDF
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253 Bernhard Dotzler, Henning Schmidgen und Cornelia Weber (Hrsg.) Parasiten und Sirenen: Zwei ZwischenRäume 2004 Download PDF
252 Renate Wahsner Formelle und konkrete Einheit. Hegels Begriff des physikalischen Gesetzes 2003
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251 Jürgen Renn and José Montesinos La Orotava y la Cultura Científica Europea 2003 Download PDF
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250 Peter Geimer (ed.) Untot – Undead. Verhältnisse vom Leben und Leblosigkeit - Relations between the Living and the Lifeless 2003
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249 Julia Voss Darwins Diagramme – Bilder von der Entdeckung der Unordnung 2003
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248 Dieter Hoffmann Pascual Jordan im Dritten Reich – Schlaglichter 2003 Download PDF
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247 Conference A Cultural History of Heredity II: 18th and 19th Centuries 2003 Download PDF
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246 Sven Dupré Renaissance Optics: Instruments, Practical Knowledge and the Appropriation of Theory 2003
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245 Horst Nowacki and Matteo Valleriani (Eds.) Shipbuilding Practice and Ship Design Methods From the Renaissance to the 18th Century 2003 Download PDF
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244 Gerhard Herrgott Tragische Progressionen. Chopin und die Rhetorik des Wohltemperierten Klaviers 2003 Download PDF
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243 Renate Wahsner Der Materialismusbegriff in der Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts 2003
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242 Bettina Gockel I Der Künstler als Objekt psychiatrischer Theorie und Praxis. Zu Ernst Ludwig Kirchner und Ludwig Binswanger d. J. – II Kirchner’s Alpine Landscapes: Paintings and Photographs 2003
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241 William G. Boltz, Jürgen Renn, Matthias Schemmel Mechanics in the Mohist Canon and Its European Counterpart: Texts and Contexts 2003 Download PDF
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240 Ursula Klein (ed.) Spaces of Classification 2003
239 José Luis Montesinos Sirera (ed.) Symposium Arquímedes Fundación Canaria Orotava de Historia de la Ciencia 2003 Download PDF
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238 Ursula Klein Experimental History and Herman Boerhaave’s Chemistry of Plants 2003
237 Horst Nowacki and Larrie D. Ferreiro Historical Roots of the Theory of Hydrostatic Stability of Ships 2003
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236 Fernando Vidal Nymphomania and the gendering of the imagination in the eighteenth century 2003
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235 Hubert Goenner and Daniela Wünsch Kaluza’s and Klein’s contributions to Kaluza-Klein-theory 2003
234 Renate Wahsner Von der metaphysikfreien Wissenschaft zur metaphysikfreien Philosophie? 2003
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233 Lorraine Daston and Anke te Heesen Things that Talk 2003
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232 Andreas Mayer L’Histoire collective de L’interprétation des rêves 2003
231 Annette Vogt Emil Julius Gumbel im Interview 2002
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230 Birgit Griesecke (Hrsg.) ... was überhaupt möglich ist - Zugänge zum Leben und Denken Ludwik Flecks im Labor der Moderne 2002 Download PDF
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229 Ursula Goldenbaum Das Publikum als Garant der Freiheit der Gelehrtenrepublik 2002
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228 Jochen Büttner, Peter Damerow, Jürgen Renn, Matthias Schemmel, and Matteo Valleriani Galileo and the Shared Knowledge of His Time 2002 Download PDF
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227 Mohammed Abattouy The Arabic Tradition of the Science of Weights and Balances 2002
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226 Henning Schmidgen (ed.) Experimental Arcades: The Materiality of Time Relations in Life Sciences, Art, and Technology (1830-1930) 2002
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225 Marcus Popplow Models of Machines: A “Missing Link” Between Early Modern Engineering and Mechanics? 2002
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224 Jürgen Renn Wissenschaft als Lebensorientierung. Eine Erfolgsgeschichte? 2002 Download PDF
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223 Ad Maas Van der Waals, Zeeman and Daily Life in the ‘Second Golden Age’ of Dutch Science 2002
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222 Conference A Cultural History of Heredity I: 17th and 18th Centuries 2002 Download PDF
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221 Dafon Aimé Segla La force agissante du mot, de la phrase-mot et des metaphores Yoruba dans la formation du Vocabulaire Scientifique 2002 Download PDF
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220 Dafon Aimé Segla L’Histoire des Manuels Scolaires Français en Afrique Noire 2002
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219 Dafon Aimé Segla Traditions Conceptuelles 2002 Download PDF
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218 Dafon Aimé Segla Esprit Scientifique et Articulation Culturelle dans une Société d’oralité 2002
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217 Matthias Schemmel An Astronomical Road to General Relativity 2002
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216 Jarita C. Holbrook Celestial Navigation and Technological Change on Moce Island 2002 Download PDF
215 Staffan Müller-Wille (Hrsg.) Sammeln - Ordnen - Wissen. Beiträge zu einem Festkolloquium aus Anlaß des 80. Geburtstages von Ilse Jahn 2002 Download PDF
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214 Karlheinz Lüdtke Zur Entscheidbarkeit wissenschaftlicher Kontroversen 2002 Download PDF
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213 Conference Experimental Cultures: Configurations between Science, Art, and Technology, 1830-1950 2002
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212 Renate Wahsner und Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski Über Glaube und Wissen in Philosophie und Naturwissenschaft 2002
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211 Jutta Schickore and Friedrich Steinle (eds.) Revisiting Discovery and Justification 2002
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210 Stefan Röhle Mathematische Probleme in der Einstein - de Sitter Kontroverse 2002 Download PDF
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209 Gunter Kohl Relativität in der Schwebe: Die Rolle von Gustav Mie 2002 Download PDF
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208 Lars Rosenberger Das Problem der Rotation in der Allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie 2002 Download PDF
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207 Annalisa Simi Teofilo Gallaccini. Matematico e Teorico dell’Architettura nella Siena di fine ’500 2002 Download PDF
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206 Jacqueline Carroy & Henning Schmidgen Psychologies expérimentales: Leipzig - Paris (1890-1910) 2002 Download PDF
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205 Oscar João Abdounur Compounding ratios and intervals: an educational/historical approach in mathematics and music 2002 Download PDF
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204 Anke te Heesen Die doppelte Verzeichnung Schriftliche und räumliche Aneignungsweisen von Natur im 18. Jahrhundert 2002
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203 Horst Kant (1) Werner Heisenberg and the German Uranium Project (2) Otto Hahn and the Declarations of Mainau and Göttingen 2002 Download PDF
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202 Horst Kant Ein "mächtig anregender Kreis" - die Anfänge der Physikalischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin 2002 Download PDF
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201 Birgit Griesecke Rausch als Versuch Unerzählerisches in der Vorgeschichte der Anästhesie 2002
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200 Albert Presas i Puig Ostilio Ricci, the Practical Education and the Canon of Technical Knowledge at the Beginning of the Italian Renaissance 2002
199 Albert Presas i Puig Luca Pacioli, Autor der Summa de Arithmetica Geometria Proportioni & Proportionalita, 1498. 2002
198 Horst Nowacki Archimedes and Ship Stability 2002
197 Michael Hagner Scientific Medicine in the Age of Naturwissenschaften. An Historiographic Survey 2002
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196 Renate Wahsner Die Macht des Begriffs als Tätigkeit (Paragraph 208). Zu Hegels Bestimmung der Betrachtungsweisen der Natur 2002
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195 Mohammed Abattouy The Aristotelian Foundations of Arabic Mechanics: Nineth-Twelfth Centuries 2002
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194 Mohammed Abattouy Islah comme un mode éditorial d’appropriation: la tradition arabe de Maqala fi 'l-mizan un traité sur la théorie du levier attribué à Euclide 2002
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193 Wolfgang Lefèvre (Hrsg.) Pictorial Means in Early Modern Engineering, 1400-1650 2002
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192 Dieter Hoffmann Zwischen Autonomie und Anpassung: Die Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft im Dritten Reich 2001 Download PDF
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191 Jürgen Renn (ed.) ECHO - an infrastructure to bring European Cultural Heritage Online 2001 Download PDF
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190 Domenico Giulini Das Problem der Trägheit 2001 Download PDF
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189 Georges Canguilhem Das Experimentieren in der Tierbiologie [Übers. v. Henning Schmidgen] 2001 Download PDF
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188 Fernando Vidal Extraordinary Bodies and the Physicotheological Imagination 2001 Download PDF
187 Hubert Goenner The quest for ultimate explanation in physics: reductionism, unity, and meaning 2001
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186 Friedrich Steinle Challenging established concepts: Ampère and exploratory experimentation 2001
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185 Matthias Dörries Purity and objectivity in nineteenth-century metrology and literature 2001
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184 Laura Otis (1) The Metaphoric Circuit: Organic and Technological Communication in the Nineteenth Century (2) The Other End of the Wire: Uncertainties of Organic and Telegraphic Communication 2001
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183 Robert Englund The State of Decipherment of Proto-Elamite 2001 Download PDF
182 Matthias Schemmel The Sections on Mechanics in the Mohist Canon 2001 Download PDF
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181 Oscar João Abdounur Ratios and music in the late Middle Ages: a preliminary survey 2001 Download PDF
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180 John Baines The earliest Egyptian writing: development, context, purpose 2001
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179 Jürgen Renn and Matteo Valleriani Galileo and the Challenge of the Arsenal 2001 Download PDF
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178 Mohammed Abattouy Interculturalité et Renaissance Scientifique 2001
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177 Mohammed Abattouy Greek Mechanics in Arabic Context 2001
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176 Jürgen Renn Erwirb es um es zu besitzen: Kulturelles Erbe im Zeitalter der Informationsrevolution 2001 Download PDF
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175 Matthias Dörries, Lorraine Daston, Michael Hagner (Hrsg.) Wissenschaft zwischen Geld und Geist 2001
174 Lorraine Daston, Staffan Müller-Wille, H. Otto Sibum A History of Facts 2001
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173 H. Otto Sibum Narrating by Numbers. Keeping an Account of Early 19th Century Laboratory Experiences 2001
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172 H. Otto Sibum, Richard Staley Natural Standards 2001
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171 H. Otto Sibum Shifting Scales. Microstudies in Early Victorian Britain 2001
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170 Gideon Freudenthal Maimon’s Subversion of Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason: There are no Synthetic a priori Judgments in Physics 2001
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169 Friedrich Steinle "Das Nächste ans Nächste reihen": Goethe, Newton und das Experiment 2001
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168 Andreas Mayer From Introspective Hypnotism to Freud’s Self-Analysis 2001
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167 Peter J. Beurton Hintergründe des modernen Lamarckismus 2001
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166 Alain Desrosières, Einar Lie, Martine Mespoulet and Emmanuel Didier Sampling Humans 2001
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165 Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski und Renate Wahsner Infinitesimalkalkül und neuzeitlicher Bewegungsbegriff oder Prozeß als Größe 2001
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164 Raymond Fredette Galileo’s De Motu Antiquiora: Notes for a reappraisal 2001
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163 Peter Damerow und Siegbert Schmidt Arithmetik im historischen Prozeß: Wie "natürlich" sind die "natürlichen Zahlen"? 2001 Download PDF
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162 Alfred Gierer Holistic Biology - Back on Stage? 2001 Download PDF
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161 Hubert Goenner Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer: Political Views and Political Practice 2001
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160 Jürgen Renn and Tilman Sauer Eclipses of the Stars - Mandl, Einstein, and the Early History of Gravitational Lensing 2000 Download PDF
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159 Mohammed Abattouy Essais Galiléens. Recherches sur la Genèse et le Développement de la Science de Galilée 2000
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158 Ubiratan D’Ambrosio Mathematics Education and the Denial of Knowledge 2000
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157 Annette Vogt The Timoféeff-Ressovsky's - A couple in science 2000
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156 Matthias Dörries (Hrsg.) “Kopenhagen“ - Wissenschaftshistoriker auf der Bühne 2000
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155 Annette Vogt Women Members of the Academies of Science - A comparative study with special consideration of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society (1912-1945) 2000
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154 Cornelius Borck Electricity as the medium of psychic life Psychotechnics, the radio, and the electroencephalogram in Weimar Germany 2000
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153 Mohamed Abattouy Nutaf min al-hiyal: An Arabic Partial Version of Pseudo-Aristotle’s Mechanica Problemata 2000
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152 Mohamed Abattouy Mechané vs. hiyal: Essai d’analyse sémantique et conceptuelle 2000
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151 Jürgen Renn Challenges of the Information Revolution for the Max Planck Society 2000 Download PDF
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150 Jochen Büttner, Olivier Darrigol, Dieter Hoffmann, Jürgen Renn, and Matthias Schemmel Revisiting the Quantum Discontinuity 2000 Download PDF
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149 Catherine Goldstein and Jim Ritter The Varieties of Unity: Sounding Unified Theories 1920-1930 2000
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148 Renate Wahsner Das naturwissenschaftliche Gesetz. Hegels Rezeption der neuzeitlichen Naturbetrachtung in der Phänomenologie des Geistes und sein Konzept von Philosophie als Wissenschaft 2000
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147 Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski and Renate Wahsner (1)Voltaire’s Newtonianism. A Bridge from English Empiricism to Cartesian Rationalism and Its Implications for the Concept of Mechanics in German Idealism (2) Christian Wolff’s Mechanical Philosophy: A Comparison with Isaac Newton’s Mechanics 2000
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146 Jens Høyrup What could they think? What would they refuse to say? 2000
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145 Peter Damerow, Jürgen Renn, Simone Rieger, Paul Weinig Mechanical Knowledge and Pompeian Balances 2000 Download PDF
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144 Volkmar Schüller Newtons Scholia aus David Gregorys Nachlaß zu den Propositionen IV - IX Buch III seiner Principia 2000
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143 William G. Boltz Monosyllabicity and the Origin of the Chinese Script 2000
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142 Gerald L. Geison and Manfred D. Laubichler Reflections on the Role of Organismal and Cultural Variation in the History of the Biological Sciences 2000
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141 Christoph Lüthy The Invention of Atomist Iconography 2000
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140 Sven Dierig, Jörg Kantel, Henning Schmidgen The Virtual Laboratory for Physiology 2000 Download PDF
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139 Olivier Darrigol and Jürgen Renn The Emergence of Statistical Mechanics. Contribution to the Enciclopedia Italiana 2000
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138 Michael Hagner Psychophysiologie und Selbsterfahrung. Metamorphosen des Schwindels und der Aufmerksamkeit im 19. Jahrhundert 2000
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137 Alfred Gierer On Modern Science, Human Cognition and Cultural Diversity. An Essay 2000 Download PDF
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136 Jürgen Renn und Matthias Schemmel Waagen und Wissen in China. Bericht einer Forschungsreise 2000 Download PDF
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135 Peter Berz und Christoph Hoffmann Sichtbare Grenzen. Ernst Machs Notizen zu den ballistisch-fotografischen Versuchen 1886/87: Faksimile der Seiten 90-129 aus Ernst Machs Notizbuch 25 nebst Einleitung und Kommentar 2000
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134 Ulf von Rauchhaupt To venture beyond the Atmosphere. Aspects of the Foundation of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics 2000
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133 Matthias Dörries Ernest Renan, a Prophet in a Scientific Age 2000
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132 Bruce Eastwood and Gerd Graßhoff Planetary Diagrams-Descriptions, Models, Theories: from Carolingian Deployments to Copernican Debates 2000
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131 Renate Wahsner "An seinen Werkzeugen besitzt der Mensch die Macht über die äußere Natur ...". Hegels Rezeption des techne-Begriffs in seiner Logik 1999
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130 Symposium 150. Jahrestag des Vortrages “Über die Erhaltung der Kraft“ von Hermann Helmholtz 1999
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129 Irmline Veit-Brause Scientists and the Cultural Politics of Academic Disciplines in late Nineteenth-Century Germany: Emil Du Bois Reymond and the controversy over the role of the cultural sciences 1999
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128 Ursula Klein Paper Tools in Experimental Cultures - The Case of Berzelian Formulas 1999
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127 Gideon Freudenthal Perpetuum Mobile - The Leibniz-Papin Controversy 1999
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126 Britta Scheideler Eine "besonders edle Gemeinschaft" - Naturwissenschaftler und das Ideal des "wissenschaftlichen Menschen" 1999
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125 Karlheinz Lüdtke Zur Geschichte der frühen Virusforschung 1999 Download PDF
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124 Ton van Helvoort (1) Scalpel or Rays? Radiotherapy and the Struggle for the Cancer Patient in Pre-World War II Germany (2) A Dispute over Scientific Credibility: The Struggle for an Independent Institute for Cancer Research in Pre-World War II Berlin 1999
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123 Working Group Gene Concepts in Development and Evolution 1999
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122 Manfred Dietrich Laubichler Oskar and Cecile Vogt: From the Neo-Cortex to Bumble Bees 1999
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121 Hans-Jörg Rheinberger Putting Isotopes to Work: Liquid Scintillation Counters, 1950-1970 1999 Download PDF
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120 Workshop "Physiologische und psychologische Praktiken im 19. Jahrhundert: ihre Beziehungen zu Literatur, Kunst und Technik" 1999 Download PDF
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119 Andreas Renner The scientific persona in the Russian intelligentsia Preliminary thoughts on travelling naturalists in the Tsarist Empire 1999
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118 Jürgen Renn and John Stachel Hilbert’s Foundation of Physics: From a Theory of Everything to a Constituent of General Relativity 1999 Download PDF
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117 Peter Damerow The Material Culture of Calculation. A Conceptual Framework for an Historical Epistemology of the Concept of Number 1999 Download PDF
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116 Ubiratan D’Ambrosio (1) Ethnomathematics. The Art or Technique of Explaining and Knowing (2) History of Mathematics in the Periphery: The Basin Metaphor 1999
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115 Jutta Berger Chemie der Kräfte: Volta, Davy, Berzelius, Faraday 1999
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114 Peter Damerow The Origins of Writing as a Problem of Historical Epistemology 1999 Download PDF
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113 Jürgen Renn, Giuseppe Castagnetti, Simone Rieger Adolf von Harnack und Max Planck 1999 Download PDF
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112 Helga Satzinger, Annette Vogt Elena Aleksandrovna und Nikolaj Vladimirovic Timoféeff-Ressovsky (1898-1973; 1900-1981) 1999
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111 Renate Wahsner Kant und Mach im Zusammenhang von Philosophie- und Wissenschaftsgeschichte 1998
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110 International Conference Postgenomics? Historical, Techno-Epistemic, and Cultural Aspects of Genome Projects 1998
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109 Renate Wahsner und Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski Maupertuis: Eine metaphysische Diskussion über eine neue Physik 1998
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108 Laszlo Tisza End of Century Reflections on Planck's Quantum Theory and Philosophy 1998
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107 Renate Wahsner Probleme mit der Kategorie des Allgemeinen 1998
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106 Alain Herreman "Topology becomes algebraic with Emmy Noether": linear combinations and the Algebraisation of topology 1998
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105 Jürgen Mittelstraß Das Undenkbare denken. Über den Umgang mit dem Undenkbaren und Unvorstellbaren in der Wissenschaft 1998
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104 Jürgen Renn, Giuseppe Castagnetti, Peter Damerow Albert Einstein: Alte und neue Kontexte in Berlin 1998 Download PDF
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103 Jim Ritter Reading Strasbourg 368: A Thrice-Told Tale 1998
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102 Scott Walter The Non-Euclidean Style of Minkowskian Relativity 1998
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101 Jordi Cat Maxwell’s Problem of Understanding Potentials Concretely: Contiguous Action, Illustration and the Coulomb Gauge 1998
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100 Lorraine Daston, Jürgen Renn, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger "Visions" 1998 Download PDF
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99 Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski and Renate Wahsner Mechanicism and Dualism. Ideas on the Epistemological Status of Physics 1998
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98 Judy Johns Schloegel From Anomaly to Unification: Tracy Sonneborn and the Species Problem in Protozoa, 1954-1957 1998
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97 Jürgen Renn, Peter Damerow, Simone Rieger, and Michele Camerota Hunting the White Elephant. When and how did Galileo discover the law of fall? 1998 Download PDF
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96 Gerd Graßhoff and Hans-Christoph Liess A Measuring Device from Qumran: Determination of Markings 1998
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95 Renate Wahsner Hegel über das mathematisch Unendliche und Materie 1998
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94 Peter J. Beurton Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900 - 1975), Sewall Wright (1889 - 1988) - Kurzbiographien - 1998
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93 Peter J. Beurton (1) Darwins Notebooks und die Ausbildung der Selektionstheorie (2) Was ist die Synthetische Theorie? 1998
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92 Reinhard Mocek Kausale Morphologie und aktueller Evolutionsdiskurs 1998
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91 Berna Kiliç Eden John Venn’s Evolutionary Logic of Chance 1998
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90 Doris Kaufmann Science as cultural practice: psychiatry in the First World War and Weimar Germany 1998
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89 Wolfgang Lefèvre Darwin, Marx und der garantierte Fortschritt. Materialismus und Entwicklungsdenken im 19. Jahrhundert 1998
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88 Jutta Berger Ideen über die Verwandlung der Stoffe. Chemische Materietheorien und Affinität im 17. und 18. Jahrhundert 1998
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87 Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski und Renate Wahsner Die Natur technisch denken? Zur Synthese von techne und fysis in der Newtonschen Mechanik oder das Verhältnis von praktischer und theoretischer Mechanik in Newtons Physik 1998
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86 Sabetai Unguru and Michael Fried Apollonius of Perga, Hieronimus of Grimstrup, and Richard of New York: Gloomy Thoughts on History and Neohistoricism 1998
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85 Paul Weinig Medieval Latin Mechanics - Texts and Traditions 1997
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84 Matthias Schramm Friedrich II. von Hohenstaufen und die Arabische Wissenschaft 1997
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83 Françoise Micheau A Quantitative Approach to Scientific Activity 1997
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82 Richard Lorch Greek-Arabic-Latin: the Transmission of Mathematical Texts in the Middle Ages 1997
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81 Wilbur R. Knorr On Heiberg's Euclid 1997
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80 Jens Høyrup Integration/Non-Integration of Theory and Practice in Ancient, Islamic and Medieval Latin Contexts 1997
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79 Menso Folkerts Early Texts on Hindu-Arabic Calculation 1997
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78 Charles Burnett The Coherence of the Arabic-Latin Translation Programme in Toledo in the Twelfth Century 1997
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77 Sonja Brentjes "Orthodoxy", Ancient Sciences, Power, and the Madrasa ("college") in Ayyubid and early Mamluk Damascus 1997
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76 Muhammad Abattouy The Arabic Tradition of Mechanics: General Survey and a First Account on the Arabic Works on the Balance 1997
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75 Sahotra Sarkar and John Stachel Discussion: Did Malament Prove the Non-Conventionality of Simultaneity in the Special Theory of Relativity? 1997
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74 Annelore Rieke-Müller Von der lebendigen Kunstkammer zur fürstlichen Liebhaberei. Fürstliche Menagerien im deutschsprachigen Raum während des 18. Jahrhunderts 1997
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73 Horst Kant Zur Geschichte der Physik an der Reichsuniversität Straßburg in der Zeit des Zweiten Weltkrieges 1997 Download PDF
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72 Ekkehard Höxtermann Zur Profilierung der Biologie an den Universitäten der DDR bis 1968 1997
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71 Eric Watkins (1) The Argumentative Structure of Kant’s Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science. (2) The Laws of Motion from Newton to Kant 1997
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70 K. Helmut Reich Empirical Evidence for Parallelisms between Scientific Developments from their Origins to Galilei and the World View of Children 1997
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69 Christoph Gradmann Money, Microbes, and More: Robert Koch, Tuberculin and the Foundation of the Institute for Infectious Diseases in Berlin in 1891 1997
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68 Yoonsuhn Chung Die Entwicklung des Kraftbegriffes im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert und die Entstehung des Feldbegriffes als einer Entität zwischen Raum und Materie 1997
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67 Annette Vogt Vom Hintereingang zum Hauptportal - Wissenschaftlerinnen in der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft 1997
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66 Richard Staley On the Histories of Relativity: Participant Histories and the Development of Relativity 1997
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65 Stuart Walker Strickland The Ideology of Self-Knowledge and the Practice of Self-Experimentation 1997
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64 Lorraine Daston Recherches en l'épistémologie historique des sciences: Empirisme et objectivité 1997
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63 Giuseppe Castagnetti, Hubert Goenner, Jürgen Renn, Tilman Sauer, and Britta Scheideler Foundation in Disarray: Essays on Einstein’s Science and Politics in the Berlin Years 1997 Download PDF
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62 Jürgen Renn and Tilman Sauer Heuristics and Mathematical Representation in Einstein’s Search for a Gravitational Field Equation 1997
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61 Wolfgang Lefèvre Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744 - 1829) 1997 Download PDF
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60 Dorinda Outram On being Perseus: New Knowledge, Dislocation, and Enlightenment Exploration 1997
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59 Lorraine Daston The Nature of Nature in Early Modern Europe 1997
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58 Renate Wahsner Empirismus und Spekulation. Überlegungen von Hegel, Feuerbach und Helmholtz 1997
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57 Annette Vogt Findbuch (Index-Book) Die Promotionen von Frauen an der Philosophischen Fakultät von 1898 bis 1936 und an der Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultät von 1936 bis 1945 der Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Berlin sowie die Habilitationen von Frauen an beiden Fakultäten von 1919 bis 1945 1997
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56 Ursula Klein Nineteenth-Century Chemistry: Its Experiments, Paper-Tools, and Epistemological Characteristics. 1997
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55 Jürgen Renn Einstein’s Controversy with Drude and the Origin of Statistical Mechanics: A New Glimpse from the “Love Letters“ 1997 Download PDF
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54 Working Group of the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale, Florence (Paola Pirolo, Isabella Trucci), the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Firenze, Florence (Piero Del Carmine, Franco Lucarelli, Pier Andrea Mandó), the Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza, Florence (Paolo Galluzzi), and the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin (Peter Damerow, Jürgen Renn, and Simone Rieger) Pilot Study for a Systematic PIXE Analysis of the Ink Types in Galileo’s Ms. 72 - Project Report No. 1 1996
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53 Mohamed Abattouy The History of Arabic Sciences: A Selected Bibliography 1996
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52 Thomas B. Settle Galileo’s Experimental Research 1996
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51 Gabriele Werner Fremdheit und Weiblichkeit. Zum surrealistischen Exotismus 1996
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50 Brian W. Ogilvie, Anke te Heesen, Martin Gierl Sammeln in der Frühen Neuzeit 1996
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49 Staffan Müller-Wille "Varietäten auf ihre Arten zurückführen". Zu Carl von Linnés Stellung in der Vorgeschichte der Genetik 1996
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48 Mohamed Abattouy Galileo’s Manuscript 72: Genesis of the New Science of Motion 1996
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47 Francesca Bordogna Interpreting the Ideal: Embedding Ideal Numbers in the Mathematical Programs of Kummer, Dedekind and Klein 1996
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46 Annette Vogt Lise Meitner und ihre Kolleginnen - Naturwissenschaftlerinnen in den Instituten der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft zwischen 1912 und 1945 1996
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45 Annette Vogt Die Fräulein Doktor werden immer mehr 1996
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44 Alexandre Mallard Compare, Standardize, and Settle Agreement: On Some Usual metrological Problems 1996
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43 Leo Corry Hilbert and Physics (1900-1915) 1996
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42 Renate Wahsner und Horst-Heino v. Borzeszkowski (Hg.) Voltaire: Elemente der Philosophie Newtons. Verteidigung des Newtonianismus 1996
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41 Wolfgang Küttler Gesellschaftstheorie, Ökonomie und Geschichte. Karl Marx im gesellschaftlichen und wissenschaftsgeschichtlichen Kontext der Modernisierung des Geschichtsdenkens 1996
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40 Leo Corry Hermann Minkowski and the Postulate of Relativity 1996
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39 Leo Corry David Hilbert and the Axiomatization of Physics (1894-1905) 1996
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38 Memorial Symposium For Lorenz Krüger 1996
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37 Alexei Kojevnikov Games of Soviet Democracy: Ideological Discussions in Sciences around 1948 Reconsidered 1996
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36 Jürgen Renn Historical Epistemology and the Advancement of Science 1996 Download PDF
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35 Hubert Goenner and Giuseppe Castagnetti Albert Einstein as a Pacifist and Democrat during the First World War 1996
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34 Friedrich Steinle Exploratives vs. theoriebestimmtes Experimentieren im frühen Elektromagnetismus bei Ampère und Faraday 1996
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33 Michael Hagner Zur Geschichte und Vorgeschichte der Neuropsychologie 1996
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32 Jöran Friberg Bricks and mud in metro-mathematical cuneiform texts. Terminology and numerical parameters 1996
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31 Hans-Liudger Dienel Die Thermodynamik der Ingenieure und die Physik, 1860-1920 1996
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30 Peter Damerow Prehistory and Cognitive Development 1996 Download PDF
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29 Jöran Friberg Pyramids and Cones in Cuneiform and Other Mathematical Texts 1996
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28 Jürgen Renn und Tilman Sauer Einsteins Züricher Notizbuch 1995
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27 Renate Wahsner Zur Kritik der Hegelschen Naturphilosophie 1995
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26 Blahoslav Hruska Sumerian Agriculture: New Findings 1995
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25 Workshop Fundamental Concepts of Early Modern Chemistry in the Context of the Operational and Experimental Practice 1995
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24 Hans-Jörg Rheinberger Kurze Geschichte der Molekularbiologie 1995 Download PDF
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23 Johannes Fehr Saussure: Zwischen Linguistik und Semiologie 1995
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22 Jöran Friberg Round and Almost Round Numbers in Proto-Literate Metro-Mathematical Field Texts 1995
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21 Lorraine Daston The Vertigo of Scientific Progress 1995
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20 Peter Ruben Widerspruch und Naturdialektik 1995
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19 Leo Corry The Kuhnian Agenda and the History of Mathematics 1995
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18 Workshop Gene Concepts and Evolution 1995
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17 Jens Høyrup As Regards the Humanities ... 1995
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16 Jens Høyrup As Regards the Humanities ... 1995
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15 Jens Høyrup As Regards the Humanities ... 1995
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14 Wolfgang Lefèvre Material and Social Conditions in an Historical Epistemology of Scientific Thinking 1995
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13 Jens Høyrup On the mensuration of the "Liber mensurationum" 1995
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12 Jens Høyrup Linee Larghe 1995
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11 Peter Beurton Essays in the Honour of Ernst Mayr's 90th Birthday 1994
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10 John Stachel Marx’s Critical Concept of Science 1994
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9 Jürgen Renn The Third Way to General Relativity 1994 Download PDF
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8 Peter McLaughlin Spontaneous vs. Equivocal Generation in Early Modern Science 1994
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7 Lorraine Daston Ravening Curiosity, Gawking Wonder, and the Study of Nature 1994
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6 Yehuda Elkana Essays on the Cognitive and Political Organization of Science 1994
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5 Peter Damerow, Wolfgang Lefèvre Wissenssysteme im geschichtlichen Wandel 1994 Download PDF
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4 John Stachel Einstein and Bose 1994
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3 Jens Høyrup Old Babylonian Mathematical Procedure Texts 1994
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2 Jürgen Renn Historical Epistemology and Interdisciplinarity 1994 Download PDF
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1 Lorraine Daston Wordless Objectivity 1994
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