The Optical Life

The Optical Life—Transformations of Optics in the Pre–Modern Period

Sven Dupre

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From: Franciscus Aguilonius' Opticorum Libri Sex Philosophis Iuxta Ac Mathematicis Utiles (1613).

This project studies the long-term development of optics between ca. 1400 and ca. 1700. Its central objects of study are the practices of optics and how these practices – if you wish, the ‘optical life’ - interacted with changing images of the discipline of optics, i. e. the changing boundaries, scope and aims of optics.

The 14th century saw the establishment of a highly-regarded discipline of optics – known as perspectiva – which was central in the medieval map of knowledge and strongly embedded within the authoritative educational context of the universities. This project shows that, in the 15th and 16th centuries, perspectiva was also transmitted and appropriated outside the universities, foremost in artisanal workshops and artists’ studios. By studying the role of travelling objects in this transmission, the project shows how objects and the concepts used to make sense of them acquired new meanings in new contexts and examines the role of media in this transmission. Finally, as the consequence of the appropriation of perspectiva in new sites the scope of the discipline of optics changed and the aims of the discipline, and the rhetoric around those alleged aims, became increasingly varied. In short, contrary to the accepted view, this project paints a picture of the long-term development of the history of optics in the pre-modern period in which the ‘new optics’ of the 17th century emerged from the competition among various images of optics, rather than as the natural outcome of perspectiva with which it shared not only concepts but also a vision of the scope and aims of the discipline of optics.