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Image of a cannon elevated at 45 degrees above the horizon using the artillerist’s quadrant. After the emergence of modern ballistics in the sixteenth century, the quadrant, which had been in use for over a hundred years, was no longer used to record the elevation of well-targeted shots, but to position the cannon in advance to hit previously determined targets. From Niccolò Tartaglia, Nova scientia, Venetia, 1558, Dedicatory Letter.